Getting to Open at a Closed Institution: A Case Study of Evolving and Sustaining Open Education Practices
Keywords:open education resources, open education practices, higher education, sustainability, strategy, educational technology
This study examined a Canadian post-secondary institution in the period between 2010 and 2014, with a follow-up assessment in 2018 in order to understand its evolution with open educational resources (OER) and open educational practices (OEP). In the first timeline, the study looked at drivers that contributed to the uptake of OER in relation to the type of OER and factors contributing to the diffusion of OER. In the second timeline, the study looked at whether OEPs are being sustained and how they evolved at the institution. Results show that within the institution there are both benefits and tensions to being open, and an institutional approach that considers openness on a case-by-case basis is appropriate. In looking at these two time periods, the study fills a gap in OER research by providing a more longitudinal view of an institutional shift towards initiating and sustaining openness.
Andrade, A., Ehlers, U.-D., Caine, A., Carneiro, R., Conole, G., Kairamo, A.-K., … Holmberg, C. (2011). Beyond OER: Shifting focus to open educational practices (OPAL Report 2011). Retrieved from http://duepublico.uniduisburg-essen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-25907/OPALReport2011-Beyond-OER.pdf
d’Antoni, S. (2007). Open educational resources: The way forward. Deliberations of an international community of interest. Paris: UNESCO-IIEP. Retrieved from http://oerwiki.iiepunesco.org/images/4/46/OER_Way_Forward.pdf.
Bliss, T., Robinson, T.J., Hilton, J., & Wiley, D.A. (2013). An OER COUP: College teacher and student perceptions of Open Educational Resources. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2013(1), p.Art. 4. http://doi.org/10.5334/2013-04
Bozkurt, A., Koseoglu, S., & Singh, L. (2018). An analysis of peer reviewed publications on openness in education in half a century: Trends and patterns in the open hemisphere. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(4). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.4252
Caswell, T., Henson, S., Jensen, M., & Wiley, D. (2008). Open Content and Open Educational Resources: Enabling universal education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v9i1.469
Cox, G., & Trotter, H. (2016). Institutional culture and OER policy: How structure, culture, and agency mediate OER Policy potential in South African universities. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i5.2523
Cronin, C. (2017). Openness and Praxis: Exploring the use of Open Educational Practices in Higher Education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i5.3096
Delimont, N., Turtle, E. C., Bennett, A., Adhikari, K., & Lindshield, B. L. (2016). University students and faculty have positive perceptions of open/ alternative resources and their utilization in a textbook replacement initiative. Research in Learning Technology, 24. https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v24.29920
Ehlers, U.D. (2011). Extending the territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 15(2), 1-10. Distance Education Association of New Zealand. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/147891/.
Farisi, M. I. (2013). OER on the Asian mega universities: Developments, motives, openness, and sustainability. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 14(1), 273-289.
Friesen, N. (2009). Open Educational Resources: New possibilities for change and sustainability. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i5.664
Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2013). Institutional change and leadership associated with blended learning innovation: Two case studies. The Internet and Higher Education, 18, 24–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.09.001
Hilton, J. (2016). Open educational resources and college textbook
choices: A review of research on efficacy and perceptions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 573-590.
Hodgkinson-Williams, C., & Arinto, P. B. (2017). Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South. Cape Town & Ottawa: African Minds, International Development Research Centre & Research on Open Educational Resources. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1005330
Hodgkinson-Williams, C. A., & Trotter, H. (2018). A social justice framework for understanding Open Educational Resources and Practices in the Global South. Journal of Learning for Development - JL4D, 5(3). Retrieved from https://jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/312
Jhangiani, R. S., Pitt, R., Hendricks, C., Key, J., & Lalonde, C. (2016). Exploring faculty use of open educational resources at British Columbia post-secondary institutions. Victoria, BC: BCcampus. JIBC 2016-2020 Education Plan (2016). Retrieved from https://www.jibc.ca/sites/default/files/main/pdf/2016- 2020-Education-Plan.pdf
Jones, C. (2015) Openness, technologies, business models and austerity. Learning, Media and Technology, 40(3), 328-349, doi: 10.1080/17439884.2015.1051307
Kezar, A., & Eckel, P. D. (2002). The effect of institutional culture on change strategies in Higher Education: Universal principles or culturally responsive concepts? The Journal of Higher Education, 73(4), 435–460. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2002.11777159
Lambert, S. R. (2018). Changing our (dis)course: A distinctive social justice aligned definition of Open Education. Journal of Learning for Development - JL4D, 5(3). Retrieved from http://jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/290
Lim, C. P., & Wang, L. (2017). Blended learning for quality higher education: Selected case studies on implementation from Asia-Pacific. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from https://bangkok.unesco.org/content/blended-learningquality-higher-education-selected-case-studies-implementation-asia-pacific
McGowan, V. (2019). Institution initiatives and support related to faculty development of open educational resources and alternative textbooks. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning. doi: 10.1080/02680513.2018.1562328
McKerlich, R., Ives, C., & McGreal, R. (2013). Measuring use and creation of open educational resources in higher education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(4). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v14i4.1573
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis, A methods sourcebook, (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Murphy, A. (2013). Open educational practices in higher education: Institutional adoption and challenges. Distance Education, 34(2), 201–217. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2013.793641
Naidu, S. (2019). The idea of open education. Distance Education, 40(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2018.1564622
Nikoi, S., & Armellini, A. (2012). The OER mix in higher education: Purpose, process, product, and policy. Distance Education, 33(2), 165–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2012.697439
Olcott, D. (2012). OER perspectives: Emerging issues for universities. Distance Education, 33(2), 283-290, doi: 10.1080/01587919.2012.700561
Patton, M.Q. (2001). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Rolfe, V. (2012). Open educational resources: Staff attitudes and awareness. Research in Learning Technology, 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v20i0.14395
Social Sciences Feminist Network Research Interest Group (SSFN-RIG). (2017). The burden of invisible work in academia: Social inequalities and time use in five university departments. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 1(39), 18.
Taylor, J. A., & Newton, D. (2013). Beyond blended learning: A case study of institutional change at an Australian regional university. The Internet and Higher Education, 18, 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.10.003
Watters, A. (2018, May 4). Invisible labor and digital utopias [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://hackeducation.com/2018/05/04/cuny-labor-open
Wiley, D. (2007). On the sustainability of open educational resource initiatives in higher education. OECD.
Wiley, D., Williams, L., DeMarte, D., & Hilton, J. (2016). The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO Model for sustaining OER adoption. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(0), 41. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.24.1828
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. (2015). Open Educational Resources: Advancing widespread adoption to improve instruction and learning. Retrieved from https://hewlett.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/OERstrategy-memo.pdf
Yin, R. K. (2002). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Yuan, Li, MacNeill, S., & Kraan, W. (2008). Open Educational Resources - Opportunities and challenges for higher education. JISC CETIS. Retrieved from http://wiki.cetis.ac.uk/images/0/0b/OER_Briefing_Paper.pdf
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).