Deployment of Offline Learning Management Systems: Comparing the Performance of Selected Micro-servers in Tanzania




Low-powered mobile devices such as Raspberry Pis and tablets can be used as micro-servers to implement offline Learning Management Systems (LMS). Despite their potential, especially for low-income countries, such as Tanzania, no research is available detailing the affordances of these devices for supporting LMS features. This study investigated the suitability of various low-cost micro-servers for deploying LMSs. It compared the performance of the Raspberry Pi, Android tablet, and Chromebook in terms of LMS benchmarking, response time, and resource utilisation. Results showed all devices had sufficient hardware resources to support the LMS, however, software stacks, I/O performance, and platform optimisations affected the micro-servers' performance. The Chromebook had the best performance in terms of response time, followed by the Raspberry Pi and tablets. In terms of cost, the Raspberry PI was the cheapest option.  The installation process for tablets was more cumbersome than the other devices, meaning the devices with better tooling and a more conventional software stack were a better option for deploying offline micro-servers.

Author Biographies

Salome Maro, University of Dar es Salaam

Dr. Salome Maro is a lecturer at the department of Computer Science and Engineering in the College of Information and Communication Technologies at the University of Dar es Salaam. She also works with the Center of Virtual Learning (CVL) as the coordinator for external online programs offered by the University of AMITY in India. Dr. Maro has done several consultancies with different government institutions in Tanzania, where her main area of expertise is system analysis and design as well as business process re-engineering. Her main areas of research are in software engineering and EdTech, where she investigates how to utilise different modern and affordable technologies to improve teaching and learning activities. Dr. Maro holds a PhD and an MSc in Software Engineering from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. She has published a number of papers in international peer reviewed journals and currently supervises both MSc and PhD students in the department of Computer Science. Email:

Aron Kondoro, University of Dar-es-Salaam

Dr. Aron Kondoro is a Lecturer in the Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) Department at the University of Dar-es-Salaam (UDSM), Tanzania. His research interests include Information and Communication Systems Security, IoT, Mobile Computing, Machine Learning, and Educational Technology (EdTech). His research and consultancy activities involve evaluating the effectiveness of information systems, developing secure ICT systems, and using mobile technologies to develop applications for educational and financial use cases. Aron has been involved in several projects, including Retooling — Designing Multimedia Enhanced Content for Secondary Schools in Tanzania; data mining of learning management schools in secondary schools (Halostudy) and many others. Email:

Björn Haßler, Open Development & Education

Björn Haßler is the director of Open Development & Education (, a founding director at the EdTech Hub ( and a visiting researcher at the Faculty of Education (University of Johannesburg). He specialises in sustainable and scalable approaches for programme implementation. His research interests include digital technology (for education and research), teacher professional development, education systems research and equity/inclusion, work-based learning, and the role of organisational learning for effective research designs and programming. He is a passionate communicator with strengths in developing and leading successful collaborations, specialising in sustainable and scalable approaches for improving people's lives. Email:

Joel Mtebe, University of Dar es Salaam

Prof. Joel S. Mtebe is an Associate Professor of Computer Science at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. He has been working as a consultant for the EdTechHub, supporting the use of technology in supporting teachers' continuous professional development project for primary education in Tanzania. Joel has participated in several educational technology projects and innovations, such as data mining from online learning systems in schools (the Halostudy system), and games-based learning and digital diaries for parental engagement. Prof Mtebe has supervised several Master’s and PhD students and has examined several theses and dissertations. Email:

Jamie Proctor, EdTech Hub Tanzania

Jamie Proctor is EdTech Hub's Country Lead for Tanzania. He is based in Dar Es Salaam and coordinates different activities for the Hub, such as research and engagement, specifically in Tanzania. He also supports the Helpdesk and Sandbox work regionally across southern Africa. Before joining the EdTech Hub, he worked in DFID leading on EdTech. His background is largely in tech — spanning the startup and the UK government digital worlds. Email:



How to Cite

Maro, S., Kondoro, A., Haßler, B., Mtebe, J., & Proctor, J. (2023). Deployment of Offline Learning Management Systems: Comparing the Performance of Selected Micro-servers in Tanzania. Journal of Learning for Development, 10(2), 280–296.



Case Studies
Received 2022-11-14
Accepted 2023-06-22
Published 2023-07-18