Agricultural Extension Agents' Use of Learning-Based Extension Methods in Trinidad and Tobago


  • Jeet Ramjattan The University of the West Indies
  • Ataharul Chowdhury University of Guelph Canada
  • Wayne Ganpat University of the West Indies


Abstract: Agricultural extension agents are highly credited for their roles of providing advice to farmers and supporting their learning and decision-making to improve livelihoods. The use of appropriate methods to promote learning in developing countries, including Trinidad and Tobago, has often been highlighted as a development priority. Nevertheless, agricultural extension agents encounter difficulties in applying new competencies. Understanding and utilising appropriate methods based on farmers’ learning needs is critical. This study sought to investigate extension agents’ use of learning-based extension methods. A survey was conducted with 106 extension agents. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to analyse data. The findings show that male agents prefer Plant Clinics and Farmer Field School learning methods. Social influence and networking among organisations had a significant influence on the use of Discovery Based Learning methods. The positive influence of social pressure motivated the agents. The study recommends supporting facilitative conditions through a coordinated programme and to focus on farmers’ learning as a critical consideration for improving the use and impact of learning-based methods


Keywords: Learning-based methods, agricultural extension, extension agent, Trinidad and Tobago

Author Biographies

Jeet Ramjattan, The University of the West Indies

Ph.D. Candidate

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension 

The University of the West Indies 

Ataharul Chowdhury, University of Guelph Canada

Assistant Professor, School of Environmental Design and Rural Development,  University of Guelph, Canada

Wayne Ganpat, University of the West Indies

Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics and  Extension


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How to Cite

Ramjattan, J., Chowdhury, A., & Ganpat, W. (2020). Agricultural Extension Agents’ Use of Learning-Based Extension Methods in Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Learning for Development, 7(2), 142–160. Retrieved from



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