Print2Screen Mobile App: Embedding Multimedia in Printed ODL Course Materials using QR Codes
Keywords:Print2Screen, QR Codes, mobile learning, Mobile Apps, Print Based Materials, Multimedia Content, Android
AbstractWith the rise of OER and multimedia such as YouTube videos, many academic institutions are becoming mindful of the richness they bring into the teaching and learning process. Given that multimedia resources cannot be directly integrated into printed material, the only available alternative is to print hyperlinks, which teachers and learners can manually type into a web browser. This method becomes ridiculously ineffective as the length of the URL increases. To address this limitation with a special focus on print based ODL course materials, the Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA), which is a regional center of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), developed an innovative solution to seamlessly integrate multimedia into printed material using Quick Response Codes (QR codes) or 2D barcodes and an Android mobile application named “Print2Screen”. This paper highlights the rationale behind Print2Screen, the development process, how the solution is implemented in a real world scenario and the benefits it will bring to the ODL community especially in rural and developing parts of the world where stable access to technology is still a costly commodity.
Abeywardena, I. S. (2015). Educational app development toolkit for teachers and learners. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning. Retrieved from http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/1729
Agca, R. K., & Özdemir, S. (2013). Foreign language vocabulary learning with mobile technologies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 781-785. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042813012147
Ashford, R. (2010). QR codes and academic libraries Reaching mobile users. College & Research Libraries News, 71(10), 526-530. Retrieved from http://crln.acrl.org/content/71/10/526.short
Chaisatien, P., & Akahori, K. (2007, July). A pilot study on 3G mobile phone and two dimension barcode in classroom communication and support system. Seventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007), (pp. 111-113). Retrieved from this URL.
Chin, K. Y., & Chen, Y. L. (2013). A mobile learning support system for ubiquitous learning environments. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73, 14-21. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042813003066
deWaard, I., Koutropoulos, A., Keskin, N., Abajian, S. C., Hogue, R., Rodriguez, C. O., & Gallagher, M. S. (2011). Exploring the MOOC format as a pedagogical approach for mLearning. In Proceedings of 10th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, (pp. 138-145). Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/32377703/Conference_Procedings.pdf#page=149
Herrington, J., Herrington, A., Mantei, J., Olney, I., & Ferry, B. (2009). Using mobile technologies to develop new ways of teaching and learning. In J. Herrington, M. J, I. Olney, B. Ferry, & A. Herrington (Eds.), New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education (pp. 1-14). Wollongong: University of Wollongong. Retrieved from http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/5227/1/Using_Mobile_technologies.pdf
Horrigan, J. (2010). Broadband adoption and use in America. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved from http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-296442A1.pdf
Kim, M. K., Kim, S. M., Khera, O., & Getman, J. (2014). The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: an exploration of design principles. The Internet and Higher Education, 22, 37-50. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/33655841/The_Experience_of_Three_Flipped_Classrooms_in_an_Urban_University-_An_Exploration_of_Design_Principles.pdf
Liu, T. Y., Tan, H., T., & Chu, Y. L. (2010). QR code and augmented reality-supported mobile English learning system. Proceedings of Mobile Multimedia Processing (pp. 37-52). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://sites.psu.edu/mobilelearners/wp-content/uploads/sites/6345/2013/10/QR-Code-and-Augmented-Reality-Supported-Mobile-English-Learning-System.pdf
Liyanagunawardena, T., Williams, S., & Adams, A. (2013). The impact and reach of MOOCs: A developing countries’ perspective. eLearning Papers(33). Retrieved from http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/32452/
Merkt, M., Weigand, S., Heier, A., & Schwan, S. (2011). Learning with videos vs. learning with print: The role of interactive features. Learning and Instruction, 2(6), 687-704. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.477.3414&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Ozcelik, E., & Acarturk, C. (2011). Reducing the spatial distance between printed and online information sources by means of mobile technology enhances learning: Using 2D barcodes. Computers & Education, 57(3), 2077-2085. Retrieved from this URL.
Pearce, K. E., & Rice, R. E. (2013). Digital divides from access to activities: Comparing mobile and personal computer Internet users. Journal of Communication, 63(4), 721-744. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/31556616/jcom12045.pdf
Prieger, J. E. (2015). The broadband digital divide and the benefits of mobile broadband for minorities. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 13(3), 373-400. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=sppworkingpapers
Rouillard, J. (2008). Contextual QR codes. In The Third International Multi-Conference on Computing in the Global Information Technology (pp. 50-55). IEEE.
Straumsheim, C. (2016). No Rush to 'Go Digital'. INSIDE HIGHER ED. Retrieved 02 23, 2016, from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/22/studyfacultymembersskepticaldigitalcoursematerialsunfamiliaroer
Uluyol, C., & Agca, R. K. (2012). Integrating mobile multimedia into textbooks: 2D barcodes. Computers & Education, 59(4), 1192-1198. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S036013151200139X
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).