Understanding the Profile, Motivations and Current Status of Academic Graduates through Open and Distance Schooling in India
Keywords:Education, Gender, Open and Distance learning, Distance Education, India, NIOS, career trajectory, tracer, labour market, higher education, inequality
In India, Open and Distance Learning for secondary and higher secondary level is mainly provided by the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). Secondary education in India pertains to class 9 and 10 catering to the age group of 15 to 16. Similarly, higher secondary education refers to class 11 and 12 catering to the age group of 17 to 18. Based on research supported by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) this paper discusses the results from a telephone survey of close to 1000 learners who were enrolled with NIOS and completed secondary and higher secondary education during 2008-2012 in selected states. It emerged that nearly 81 per cent of respondents were gainfully employed and NIOS helped them look for better jobs, widen their job search, and gain more stable (permanent) and secure (government) jobs. NIOS has successfully enabled a good proportion of learners to continue with their higher education. Flexibility offered by open schooling is the main motivation to join NIOS; individuals facing various constraints in accessing regular secondary education have opted for this option. It appears that two different kinds of learners join NIOS at these two levels; the secondary level seems to have a bigger representation from lower socio-economic strata. The role of open schooling in reducing the gender gap at secondary level of schooling remains mixed.
Andrea, N. S. (Centro di RicercasuiSistemiInformativi, LUISS Guido Carli, Rome, Italy). (2010). The impact of gender culture on women's carer trajectories: An Australian case study. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/02610151111124941
Bezbaruah, S. (2015). Banking on equality, women, work and employment in the banking sector in india. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Banking_on_Equality.html?id=JMYqBwAAQBAJ=en.
Bukodi, E., Dex, S., & Joshi, H. (2012). Changing career trajectories of men and women across time. Retrieved from, http://www.elgaronline.com/view/9781849806268.00009.xml
Fentiman, A. (2007). Tracer study of former NAMCOL learners. Cambridge: IRFOL. International Centre for Research on Women, Canada. How technology can advance women economically. Retrieved from http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/Bridging-the-Gender-Divide-How-Technology-can-AdvanceWomen-Economically.pdf
Latha, J., & Sindhuja, M. (2015). A study on the career trajectories of women employees in information technology (it) industry with special reference to chennai city. Retrieved from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosrjmce/papers/ICRTEM/ME/Volume4/IOSRME09.pdf?id=762
Jagsi, R., DeCastro, R., Griffith, K.A., Rangarajan, S., Churchill, C., Stewart, A., & Ubel, P.A. (2011). Similarities and difference in career trajectories of male and female career development award recipients. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2011/11000/Similarities_and_Difference_in_the_Career. 37.aspx
Kirrin, G., Kim, B., Janna, M., Payal, P., & Aslihan K. (2010). Bridging the gender divide – How technology can advance women economically. international centre for research on women, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/Bridging-the-Gender-Divide-How-Technology-can-AdvanceWomen-Economically.pdf
Minni, P., Pancharatnam, P., Rajgopal, S., & Jha, J. (2016). How open is open school in india? A learners’ perspective. Pan-Commonwealth Forum 8: Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved from http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2563
Muchena, E., Muonwa, W., & Makwanya P. (2015, May). Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) graduates and the job market: A case study on the employability of ZOU media graduates. (Harare Regional Centre). IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 20(5), 70-75.
Planning Commission, Government of India. Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017) - Social Sectors. Vol III. (2013). New Delhi: Sage Publications.
UNESCO. (2002). Open and distance learning: Trends policies and strategy considerations. Paris: UNESCO
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).