Towards Inclusive Education: A Case Study of IGNOU
AbstractTowards the end of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007 -2012), India catered to about 20 per cent of the youth in the age group 17 to 24 years. However, to achieve the threshold level of about 30 per cent by 2020, and address concerns which perpetuate inequalities in opportunities to higher education, Government of India (GoI) formulated positive discrimination policies. Establishment of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) was one such positive step in this direction. Since 1987, IGNOU has been striving for inclusive education and reach all groups till the last mile. As a result of its dedicated efforts, at the end of 2012, it had reached 639 out of 659 districts in the country, including those in the red corridor (infested by Naxalite and Maoist extremists) passing through States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha, and West Bengal. IGNOU has been successfully imparting education and training to socially, economically, physically and/or geographically disadvantaged, in addition to women, minorities and jail inmates. Our results show that participation of rural women is particularly encouraging in all programmes but the dropout rate of these groups is rather high and success rate comparatively low.
Agrawal, S. R., & Ghosh, C. K. (2014). Inculcation of Values for Best Practices in Student Support Services in Open and Distance Learning - The IGNOU Experience, Journal of Human Values, 20(1), 95-111.
AISHE (2012). All India Survey on Higher Education - Provisional Report 2011-12, Government of India, Retrieved from http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/AISHE2011-12P_1.pdf
Basu, S. (2011). Thinking Openness, University News, 49 (30), 21-24.
Census. (2011a). Profiles, Retrieved from http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/censusinfodashboard/stock/profiles/en/IND_India.pdf
Census. (2011b). SCST population at glance, Retrieved from http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/scst.aspx
Census. (2011c). Disability Data, Table C-20, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/Disability_Data/India/C_20-India.xls
Erwin, E. J. (1993). The Philosophy and Status of Inclusion, Envision: A publication of the Lighthouse National Centre for Vision and Child Development, 1.
FEFC. (1997). Annual Report 1996-97, London: Further Education Funding Council.
Fryer, R.H. (1997). Learning for Twenty-First Century, London: National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and lifelong learning.
Garg, S., Ghosh, C. K. & Khare, P. (2013). On Adding Value to Learning Experiences through Support Services: A Case Study of IGNOU, Asian Journal of Distance Education, ISSN 1347-9008, 11 (1), pp 19 – 37. http://www.asianjde.org /2013v11.1.Garg.pdf
IGNOU (2012). Report of High Power Committee on Review of Programmes, their Organization and Modes of Delivery in terms of its Mandate, New Delhi: IGNOU (unpublished).
IGNOU (2014). Profile., New Delhi: IGNOU
Khare, P., Saxena, A., & Garg, S. (2004). Performance Analysis of IGNOU Science Students in Theory Courses through Data Mining, Indian Journal of Open Learning, 13, 29-49.
Konwar, N., & Chakraborty, S. (2013). Status of Higher Education in Rural Areas of India, Journal of Radix International Educational and Research Consortium, 2 (1). Retrieved from http://rierc.org/social/ paper143.pdf.
MHRD (2008). Status of Education in India: National Report, New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.
MHRD (2012). Annual Report 2011-12, New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India.
MHRD (2013). Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan: National Higher Education Mission Report, New Delhi: MHRD.
Mishra, A., Vijayshri, & Garg, S. (2009). Evaluation of Undergraduate Physics Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University – A Case Study, The International Review of Research in Distance and Open Learning, 10 (6), 106-123. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php /irrodl/ article/view/753/1456.
Mohapatra, S. K. (12 July 2012). Personal Communication.
National Knowledge Commission. (2006). Report to the Nation 2006, New Delhi: NKC, Government of India, Available online at http://www.knowledgecommission.gov.in.
Panda, S. (2011). Distance Education in International Contexts: Planning and Management Imperatives, Indian Journal of Open Learning, 20 (10), 3-14.
Panda, S., Raza, R., Garg, S., Khan, A. R., & Gaba, A. (2004). Programme Completion, and Learner Persistence and Dropout in Distance Education: A Preliminary Study, Paper presented at Pan Commonwealth Forum, New Zealand, July 2-8, 2004.
Panda, S., Venkaiah, V., Garg, S., & Puranik, C. (2006). Tracing the Historical Developments in open and Distance Education, in Suresh Garg, V. Venkaiah, C. Puranik, & S. Panda (Eds), Four Decades of Distance Education in India: Reflection on Policy and Practice, Viva Books: New Delhi, p. 14.
Prasad, V. S., & Venkaiah, V. (2005). India’s first Open University: Experience of Two Decades, Hyderabad: GRADE, BRAOU, pp.4-8.
Sadhwani, A., Gaba, A. and Panda, S. (2007). Tracer Studies in Distance Education: A Case Study of IGNOU Graduates, New Delhi: DEC (IGNOU). (unpublished)
Sanghai, S. and Garg, S. (2009). Evaluation of Bachelor of Education Programme of IGNOU: An Appraisal by the Beneficiaries, Indian Journal of Open Learning, 18 (3), 149-165.
Siwaswaroop, P. ( 16 October 2014). Personal Communication.
Swamy, R. N. (2011). Towards an Inclusive Educational System: Role of Distance Education in India, University News, 49 (42), 17-23.
Times of India. (1 Sept 2007). OBC Population, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ OBCs-form-41-of-population-Survey/articleshow/2328117.cms retrieved on July 1, 2014.
Times of India. (4 Sept 2012). Enrolment of women in higher education increases, Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/education/news/Enrolment-of-women-in-higher-education-increases/articleshow/16244028.cms
UGC. (2007). Report of the UGC committee to prepare detailed project report (DPR) for establishing the proposed model colleges in low Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) districts in India, http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/document-reports/Report-UGCDPR_0.pdf, 1
UGC. (2012). Higher Education in India at a Glance, UGC, February, 2012.
Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Learning for Development - JL4D
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).