Positioning extension Massive Open Online Courses (xMOOCs) within the open access and the lifelong learning agendas in a developing setting

Bernard Nkuyubwatsi

Abstract


Recent reports on xMOOCs indicated that underprivileged learners in need for higher education have minimally been reached by these courses. While the open access agenda is needed to reach such learners, most MOOCs were developed from societies that shifted toward the lifelong learning agenda. In this paper, xMOOCs are positioned in both the open access and the lifelong learning agendas in a developing country context. Findings from ten xMOOCs are presented and discussed. The findings suggested that two of the ten xMOOCs may contribute directly to the open access agenda and two xMOOCs may contribute indirectly to the same agenda. Nine xMOOCs were found to have the potential to contribute to the lifelong learning agenda. These findings may inform policies and practices that underpin opening up higher education and open education in general.


Keywords


The open access agenda, the lifelong learning agenda, xMOOCs, developing setting, open scholarship

Full Text:

HTML ePub PDF

References


Achieve (2011). Rubrics for evaluating Open Educational Resource (OER) objects. Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://www.achieve.org/files/AchieveOERRubrics.pdf

Alcorn, B., Christensen, G. & Emanuel, J.E. (2014, January 4). Who take MOOCs?: For higher education, the devil is in the data, New Republic, Retrieved May 6, 2015, from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/116013/mooc-student-survey-who-enrolls-online-education

Anderson, T. (2010). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.),

Emerging technologies in distance education (pp. 23-39). Edmonton: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.aupress.ca/books/120177/ebook/02_Veletsianos_2010-Emerging_Technologies_in_Distance_Education.pdf

Anderson, A., Huttenlocher, D., Kleinberg, J. & Lescovec, J. (2014). Engaging with Massive

Open Online Courses. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web (pp. 687-698). Retrieved May 10, 2015, from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2568042

Andrei, M. (2014, October 1). Germany removes university fees: what we should learn from that. ZME Science. Retrieved May 8, 2015, from http://www.zmescience.com/other/germany-education-fees-01102014/

Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and

self-determined learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(1), 56-71. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076/2113

Blom, J., Verma, H., Li, N., Skevi, A. & Dillenbourg, P. (2013). MOOCs are more social than

you believe, eLearning Papers. Retrieved May 5, 2015, from https://oerknowledgecloud.org/sites/oerknowledgecloud.org/files/From-field_33_1.pdf

Bouma, D.G. & Ling, R. (2004). The Research Process (5th edn). Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social Research Methods (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Canning, N. (2010). Playing with heutagogy: Exploring strategies to empower mature learners in

higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 34(1), 59-71.

Canning, N. & Callan, S. (2010). Heutagogy: Spirals of reflection to empower learners in higher education. Reflective Practice, 11(1), 71-82.

Cisel, M. (n.d). Guide du MOOC. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.france-universite-numerique.fr/IMG/pdf/guide_mooc_complet_vf.pdf

Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2011). Research Methods in Education (7th edn). Oxon:

Routledge.

Conole, G. (2013). MOOCs as disruptive technologies: Strategies for enhancing the learner

experience and quality of MOOCs. Revista de Educación a Distancia. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://www.um.es/ead/red/39/conole.pdf

Conole, G. (2014). A new classification for MOOCs. International Journal for Innovation and Quality in Learning. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://papers.efquel.org/index.php/innoqual/article/view/164

Creswell, W.J. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4edn). Los Angeles: Sage.

Daniel, J.S. (2012). Making sense of MOOCs: Musing in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://jime.open.ac.uk/articles/10.5334/2012-18/

EADTU (2014). Porto declaration on European MOOCs: Europe must seize this moment to grab

the opportunities offered by MOOCs. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://home.eadtu.eu/images/News/Porto_Declaration_on_European_MOOCs_Final.pdf

Grainger, B. (2013). Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) report. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/sites/default/files/documents/mooc_report-2013.pdf

Guo, J.P. & Reinecke, K. (2014). Demographic differences in how students navigate through

MOOCs. Proceedings of the First ACM Conference on Learning (pp. 21-30). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from https://groups.csail.mit.edu/uid/other-pubs/las2014-pguo-demographic.pdf

Harishankar, V.B. (2012). Tracing the trajectory of OER in India: Reflection on three initiatives.

In J. Glennie, K. Harley, N. Butcher, & T.V. Wyk (eds), Open Educational Resources and changes in higher education: Reflection from practice (pp. 41-56). Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning.

Hase, S. & Kenyon, C. (2001). From andragogy to heutagogy. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/pr/Heutagogy.html

Heller, E.D. & Roger, R. K. (2006). Shifting the burden: Public and private financing of higher

education in the United States and implications for Europe. Tertiary Education and Management 12(2), 91-117. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13583883.2006.9967162

Home (2014). Open call for position papers on MOOCs. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.home.eadtu.eu/images/News/Open_Call_Position_paper_MOOCs_Update_8Sept.pdf

Iversity (2013, September 23). ECTS credits for MOOCs on Iversity. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from https://iversity.org/blog/ects-credits-moocs-iversity/

Jacobi, R. & Woert, N.V.D. (2012). Trend report: Open Educational Resources 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2015, from https://www.surfspace.nl/media/bijlagen/artikel-697-ee18ac0f1441bb158e6122818f5f589e.pdf

Kjeldstad, B., Alvestrand, H., Elvestad, O.E., Ingebretsen, T., Melve, I., Bongo, M. et al. (2014).

MOOCs for Norway: New digital learning methods in higher education. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from http://www.regjeringen.no/pages/38804804/PDFS/NOU201420140005000EN_PDFS.pdf

Koller, D. (2012). What we’re learning from online education. TED. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.ted.com/talks/daphne_koller_what_we_re_learning_from_online_ education.html

Kopp, M., Ebner, M. & Dofer-Novak, A. (2014). Introducing MOOCs to Austrian universities: Is it worth it to accept the challenge?. The International Journal of Innovation and Quality in Learning, 46-52. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://papers.efquel.org/index.php/innoqual/article/view/154/41

Lane, L. M. (2012). Three kinds of MOOCs [Web log post]. Retrieved April 29, 2015, from

http://www.lisahistory.net/wordpress/2012/08/three-kinds-of-moocs/

Lane, A. & Van Dorp, K.J. (2011). Open educational resources and widening participation in higher education: Innovations and lessons from open universities. EDULEARN11, the 3rd annual International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Retrieved April 16, 2015, from http://oro.open.ac.uk/29201/1/OPEN_EDUCATIONAL_RESOURCES_AND_WIDENING_PARTICIPATION_andy.pdf

Liyanagunawardena, T., Williams, S. & Adams, A. (2013). The Impact and reach of MOOCs: A developing countries’ perspective. eLearning Papers (33). Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/article/The-Impact-and-Reach-of-MOOCs%3A-A-Developing-Countries%E2%80%99-Perspective?paper=124335

Matherly, J. (2014). All devices connected to the Internet. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2737627/Now-s-world-wide-web-Map-reveals-globe-looks-like-internet-device-lit-up.html

Mulder, F. (2015). Open(ing up) education for all…Boosted by MOOCs?. In C. J. Bonk, M.M. Lee, T.C. Reeves & T.H. Reynolds (eds.), MOOCs and open education around the world (pp. xviii- xxvii). London: Routledge.

Mulder, F. & Janssen, B. (2013) Opening up education. In R. Jacobi, H. Jelgerhuis & V.D. N. Woert (eds), Trend Report: Open Educational Resources 2013 (pp. 36-42). Retrieved May 11, 2015, from https://www.surf.nl/binaries/content/assets/surf/en/knowledgebase/2013/Trend+Report+OER+2013_EN_DEF+07032013+%28HR%29.pdf

National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (2014). Characteristics of households and housing:

Fourth population and housing census, Rwanda, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2015, from http://statistics.gov.rw/publications/rphc4-thematic-report-characteristics-households-and-housing

Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2014a). Cultural translation in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). eLearning Papers (37), 23-32. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/paper/experiences-and-best-practices-and-around-moocs

Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2014b). Mapping five Os for reaping benefits from Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Journal Of Global Literacies, Technologies and Emerging Pedagogies, 2 (3), 189-206. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://joglep.com/index.php/archives/voulme-2-issue/

Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2015). Fostering collaborative investment in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In D. Jansen & A. Teixeira (eds), Position papers for European cooperation on MOOCs: Overview of position papers on the opportunities and characteristics for European cooperation as presented during the HOME Conference in Porto November 2014 (pp. 44-57). Retrieved May 14, 2015, from http://home.eadtu.eu/images/Position_papers_for_European_cooperation_on_MOOCs.pdf

Nkuyubwatsi, B., Ndayishimiye, V., Ntirenganya, B.J., Umwungerimwiza, D.Y. (2015). Towards innovation in digital and open scholarship for non-rivalrous lifelong learning and supporting open learning: The case of the Open Scholars Network. eLearning Papers (44), 53-59. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://openeducationeuropa.eu/en/paper/teacher-s-role-educational-innovation

Ouwehand, M. (2012). OER platform. In R. Jacobi & N.V.D. Woert (eds), Trend report: Open Educational Resources 2012 (pp. 47-53). Retrieved May 14, 2015, from https://www.surfspace.nl/media/bijlagen/artikel-697-ee18ac0f1441bb158e6122818f5f589e.pdf

Ostrow, N. (2013, November 20). Online courses fail to reach poor students as richest benefit. Bloomsberg Technology. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-11-20/online-courses-fail-to-reach-poor-students-as-richest-benefit.html

Rodriguez, C. O. (2012). MOOCs and the AI-Stanford like courses: Two successful and distinct

course formats for Massive Open Online Courses. European Journal of Open, Distance and eLearning. Retrieved May 10, 2015 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ982976.pdf

Spinu, G. (2013). Tuition fees and living costs in France. Retrieved May 7, 2015, from

http://www.mastersportal.eu/articles/355/tuition-fees-and-living-costs-in-france.html

The University of Rwanda (2014). General academic regulations for open and distance learning programmes. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://cbe.ur.ac.rw/images/policy/Revised%20UR%20General%20Academic%20Regulations%20for%20Undergraduate%20Programmes.pdf

Thrun, S. (2012). Higher education 2.0. Retrieved May 14, 2015, from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SkneoNrfadk

University of Nicosia (2014). MSc. in Digital Currency. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://digitalcurrency.unic.ac.cy/admissions-registration/admissions-criteria

Valkenburg, W.V. (2012). An international perspective on OCW. In R. Jacobi & N.V.D. Woert (eds), Trend report: Open Educational Resources 2012 (pp.77-81). Retrieved May 14, 2015, from https://www.surfspace.nl/media/bijlagen/artikel-697-ee18ac0f1441bb158e6122818f5f589e.pdf

Veletsianos, G., & Kimmons, R. (2012). Assumptions and challenges of open scholarship. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(4), 166–189. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1313

Verstelle, M., Schreuder, M. & Jelgerhuis, H. (2014). Recognition of MOOCs in the higher

education sector. In R. Jacobi, N.V.D. Woert & H. Jelgerhuis (eds), Trend report: Open Educational Resources 2014 (pp. 24-32). Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.surf.nl/binaries/content/assets/surf/en/2014/trendrapport-open-education-2014-eng.pdf

Weller, M. (2011). The digital scholar: How technology is transforming the scholarly practice. New York: Bloomsbery.

Weller, M. (2014). The battle for open: How openness won and why it doesn’t feel like

victory, London: Ubiquity Press. Retrieved May 10, 2015, from http://www.ubiquitypress.com/site/books/detail/11/battle-for-open/

Woert, N.V.D. (2012). Access, accessibility and use of Open Educational Resources. In Jacobi,

R. & Woert, N.V.D. (eds) Trend report: Open Educational Resources 2012 (pp. 35-39). Retrieved May 14, 2015, from https://www.surfspace.nl/media/bijlagen/artikel-697-ee18ac0f1441bb158e6122818f5f589e.pdf

Yuan, L. & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education.

Retrieved May 10, 2015, from http://publications.cetis.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/MOOCs-and-Open-Education.pdf


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International License.