Open and Distance Learning and Information and Communication Technologies- Implications on Formal and Non formal Education.


  • David Barasa Situma Africa International University, Kenya



Information and Communication Technology, Formal Education, Informal Education, Open learning, distance Learning, transition rates, retaination rates,


The Population; female (% of total) in Kenya was last reported at 50.05 in 2011, according to a World Bank report published in 2012. Despite this higher percentage, women in Kenya are not well represented in education and training compared to their male counter parts (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics: Kenya Facts and Figures 2012 student enrolment by type of institution and sex). The need to empower girls and women through education is vital to achieve the Bill of Rights (Constitution of Kenya, 2010). Use of Information and communication technologies (ICT) for Open and distance learning (ODL) are some of the initiatives that seek to gap the gender parity in education in Kenya. In establishing the implications of ICT and ODL on girl and women education in Kenya, this paper seeks to: a) examine the current policies that supports the use of ICTs in formal and non formal education in Kenya, b) assess the objectives and strategies to facilitate widespread use of ICTs and how they affect girls and women Education in Kenya; c) assess the Implementation of policy objectives and strategies in support of ICTs and ODL for girls and women Education, d) Identify priority areas for implementation of ODL initiatives for women and Girls Education in  Kenya; e) State lessons drawn from the ICT and ODL  initiatives for girl and women Education ; f) propose strategies for addressing the challenges for implementation of ODL and ICT for girl and Women Education in Kenya. Literature provides very informative findings in support of ICT and ODL for Gender. A number of policies and initiatives are operating in Kenya to ensure ICT and ODL are fully maximized by both Genders. However, the said policies and initiatives have not fully achieved the objectives for which ICT and ODL ought to be implemented. There is need to factor in women and Girls in a curriculum development strategy concerning ICT and ODL.

Author Biography

David Barasa Situma, Africa International University, Kenya

Department: Academic Affairs

Rank: Director, Open, distance and e-Learning


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How to Cite

Situma, D. B. (2015). Open and Distance Learning and Information and Communication Technologies- Implications on Formal and Non formal Education. Journal of Learning for Development, 2(1).



Research Articles
Received 2013-09-30
Accepted 2014-10-24
Published 2015-03-20