Governance of Open Universities — A Few Observations on Trends in Asia

Madhulika Kaushik, Gajaraj Dhanarajan

Abstract


Like all organisations, good governance is a fundamental requirement for the responsible and accountable management of universities in general and open universities in particular. This is to ensure that these (open) universities remain relevant to their mission of facilitating unfettered access to higher education for citizens and at the same time continue being reliable contributors to personal and institutional developments, the vital ingredients to maintaining sustained national development. While several studies have, in the past, been conducted on governance of universities, almost all of them have centred around conventional, face-to-face institutions. Not much published literature is in evidence on the governance of Open Universities. This paper, drawing from a study on the governance of a few open universities in Asia, tries to discuss the nature of their challenges, and the lessons that can be drawn from their practices and experience. The study focused on aspects relating to institutional autonomies such as curriculum, budgeting and financial management, admission standards, conferment of qualifications, academic staff appointments, development and promotions and research policies. Our findings indicate that, similar to conventional systems, the state plays a crucial role in many aspects of governance both in publicly funded and privately supported institutions. Recent attempts at governance transformation towards greater institutional autonomies is beginning to show limited changes in some but not all jurisdictions studied.

Keywords


Open universities; Governance; Asia

Full Text:

PDF HTML ePub

References


Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2011). Higher education across Asia: An overview of strategies. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

ADB (2012). Access without equity: Finding a better balance in higher education. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

Asiimwe, S., & Steyn, G. M. (2013). Obstacles Hindering the Effective Governance of Universities in Uganda. Journal of Social Sciences, 34(1), 17-27.

Becher, T., & Kogan, M. (1992). Process and structure in higher education. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Bleiklie, I. (1998). Justifying the Evaluative State. New Public Management Ideals in Higher Education. European Journal of Education, 33(3): 299–316.

Bleiklie, I., & Kogan, M. (2007). Organization and Governance of Universities. Higher Education Policy, 20(4), 477-493.

Clark, B.R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: Organizational pathways to transformation. Oxford, New York, Tokyo: IAU Press/Pergamon.

Committee of University Chairs (2014). The higher education Code of Governance. OUUK. Retrieved from https://www.universitychairs.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/HE-Code-of-Governance-Updated-2018.pdf

Dhirathiti, N. S. (2011). Governance and administration in higher education. A background study paper for the regional technical assistance project on higher education in dynamic Asia.  Asian Development Bank. Manila.

Dill, D., & Sporn, B. (1995). Emerging patterns of social demand and university reform: Through a glass darkly. Oxford: IAU Press/Pergamon.

Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (Eds.) (1997). Universities and the global knowledge economy: A triple helix of university-industry-government relations. London: Cassell.

Fielden, J. (2008). Global trends in university governance. World Bank Education Paper Series, World Bank, Washington DC. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200- 1099079877269/547664- 1099079956815/Global_Trends_University_Governance_webversion.pdf

Giroux, D., Karmis, D., & Rouillard, C. (2015). Between the Managerial and the Democratic University: Governance Structure and Academic Freedom as Sites of Political Struggle. Studies in Social Justice, 9(2), 142-158.

Gornitzka, A., Kogan, M., & Amaral, A. (Eds.) (2005). Reform and change in higher education: Analysing policy implementation. Dordrecht: Springer.

Keller, G. (1983). Academic Strategy the management revolution in American higher education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kerr, C. (1995). The uses of the university. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Kim, T. (2008). Changing University Governance and Management in the U.K. and elsewhere under Market Condition: Issues of Quality Assurance and Accountability. Intellectual Economics, 2(4), 35–42. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/1185241/Terri_Kim_Changing_University_Governance_and_Management

Lane, A. (2015). Open Universities. In M. Peters, (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of educational philosophy and theory, (pp. 45-46) Singapore: Springer.

Neave, G. (1998). The evaluative state reconsidered. European Journal of Education, 33(3), 265–284.

Neave, G., van Vught, F. A., & Editor BSK, N. N. (1991). Prometheus bound: The changing relationship between government and higher education in Europe. Oxford: Pergamon.

Neave, G., van Vught, F. A., & Editor BSK, N. N. (1994). Government and higher education relationships across three continents. Winds of change. Oxford: Pergamon.

Olsen, J.P. (2005). The institutional dynamics of the (European) University. Arena Working Paper No. 15. University of Oslo: Arena.

Peters, O. (2008) Transformation through Open Universities. In T. Evans, M. Haughey, & D. Murphy (Eds.), International handbook of Distance Education, (pp. 279-302).  Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

Raza, R. (2009). Examining autonomy and accountability in public and private tertiary institutions (English). Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/267671468158063464/Examining-autonomy-and-accountability-in-public-and-private-tertiary-institutions

Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. (1997). Academic capitalism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Tait, A. (2008). What are Open Universities for? Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 23(2), 85-93.

Teichler, U. (1988). Changing patterns of the higher education system. The experience of three decades. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Tilak, J. B.G. (2003). Higher Education and Development in Asia. Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, XVII(2), 151-173.

UNESCO (2009). Global education digest: Comparing education statistics across the world. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO Institute of Statistics.

UNESCO Institute of Statistics (2014). Higher education in Asia: Expanding out, expanding up. Montreal: UIS. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002275/227516e.pdf

World Bank (2008). Global Trends in University Governance. Education Working Paper Series No. 9.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International License.