Reflecting on the Impact of the Open Education Movement

Grainne Conole, Mark Brown

Abstract


This paper critiques the rise and impact of the open education movement, focusing in particular on Higher Education. It considers the impact of adopting more open practices on learning, teaching and research. In terms of the impact on learning it describes three aspects: Open Educational Resources, e-textbooks and Massive Open Online Courses. In terms of the impact on teaching it describes three frameworks which can guide the design process: the 7Cs of Learning Design framework, the SAMR model and the ICAP framework. Finally, it considers the impact on research. The paper concludes by considering the barriers and enablers associated with adopting more open practices.

Keywords


Open education movement, Open Educational Resources, E-textbooks, Massive Open Online Course, 7Cs of Learning Design framework, SAMR model, ICAP framework

Full Text:

PDF HTML ePub

References


Aagaard, J. (2018). Magnetics and multi-stable: Reinterpreting the affordances of educational technology. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15: 4, 1-10.

Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2016). Opening the textbook: Educational resources in US higher education 2015-16. Babson Survey Research Group. Retrieved from https://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/openingthetextbook2016.pdf

Anderson, T. (2009). Open Scholarship. Presented at Open Access Week 2009, Athabasca University. Retrieved from http://auspace.athabascau.ca/bitstream/2149/2320/7/oas.pdf   

Baranuik, R.G. (2008). Challenges and Opportunities for the Open Education Movement: A Connexions Case Study. In T. Iiyoshi and M.S.V. Kumar (Eds.), Opening up education – the collective advancement of education through open technology, open content and open knowledge. MIT Press: Cambridge. Retrieved from http://www.akgul.web.tr/akgul/egitim/mit/OUE-book.pdf#page=251

Borgeman, C. (2007a). The continuity of scholarly communication Scholarship in the digital age: Information, infrastructure and the Internet. Hong Kong: SNP Best-set Typersetter Ltd.

Borgeman, C. (2007b). Scholarship in the digital age: Information, infrastructure and the Internet. Hong Kong: SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd.

Bower, J.L., & Christensen, C.M. (1995). Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/1995/01/disruptive-technologies-catching-the-wave

Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Brown, M. (2018a). Why Invest in MOOCs? Strategic Institutional Drivers. The 2018 OpenupEd trends report on MOOCs. Retrieved from http://www.openuped.eu/images/Publications/The_2018_OpenupEd_trend_report_on_MOOCs.pdf

Brown, M. (2018b). The Challenge of Digital Literacy: Beyond Narrow Skills to CRITICAL MINDSETS (Junhong Xiao Trans.). Distance Education in China, 4: 42-53.

Brown, M. (2017). A Critical Guide for Policy-Makers on the Great Unbundling of Higher Education. In G. Ubachs, L. Konings, & M. Brown (Eds.), The envisioning report for empowering universities (pp. 10-12). Maastricht: European Association for Distance Teaching Universities.

Brown, M. (2016). MOOCs as Social Practice: A Kaleidoscope of Perspectives. In E. De Corte, L. Enwall, & U. Teichler (Eds.), From books to MOOCs? Emerging models of learning and teaching in higher education (pp. 31-41). Wenner-Gren International Series, 88. London: Portland Press.

Brown, M., Costello, E., & Nic Giolla Mhichill, M. (2018). From Books to Moocs and Back Again: An Irish Case Study of Open Digital Textbooks. Proceedings of the EDEN 2018 Genoa Conference. Retrieved from http://www.eden-online.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Annual_2018_Genova_BoA.pdf

Burgess, M. (2017). The BC Open Textbook Project. In R.S. Jhangiani and R. Bisware-Diener (Eds.), Open: The philosophy and practices that are revolutionizing education and science, (pp. 222-236). London: Ubiquity Press.

Chi, M.T.H., & Wylie, R. (2014). The ICAP Framework: Linking Cognitive Engagement to Active Learning Outcomes. Educational Psychologist, 49(4), 219-243.

Class Central. (2018). A product at every price: A review of MOOC stats and trends in 2017. Retrieved from https://www.class-central.com/report/moocs-stats-and-trends-2017/

Conole, G. Ehlers,U.-D. Mundin, P., Inamorato Santos, A, Connelly, T., Koskinen, T., Kairamo, A.-K., Nozes, J., & Carneio, R. (2010). Quality and Innovation in Open Educational Practice. In Proceedings of the EDEN Conference, Valencia.

Conole, G. (2012). Fostering Social Inclusion Through Open Educational Resources (OER), Editorial. Distance Education, 33, 131-134, Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01587919.2012.700563?journalCode=cdie20

Conole, G. (2013). Designing for learning in an open world, New York: Springer.

Conole, G. (2015). The 7Cs of Learning Design. In J. Dalziel (Ed.), Learning Design – state of the art of the field, London: Routledge.

Conole, G. (2016). Designing Effective MOOCs. Educational Multimedia International, 54(4), 239 – 252.

Conole, G. (in press). Frameworks for Learning Design. In H. Beetham and R. Sharpe (Eds.), Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age, (3rd ed.) London: Routledge.

Cronin, C. (2017). Open Education, Open Questions. EDUCAUSE Review. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2017/10/open-education-open-questions

Cronin, C., & MacLaren, I. (2018). Conceptualising OEP: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Literature in Open Educational Practices. Open Praxis, 10(2). Retrieved from https://openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/825/436

Dalziel, J., (2015). Learning design: Conceptualizing a framework for teaching. Routledge: Oxford.

Daniel, D. B., & Woody, W. D. (2013). E-Textbooks at What Cost? Performance and Use of Electronic v. Print Texts. Computers & Education, 62, 18–23.

Darnalt, A.D. (2014). LATin: South America’s open education publishing project. Retrieved from https://publishingperspectives.com/2014/01/latin-south-americas-open-education-publishing-project/

De Hart, K., Chetty, Y., & Archer, E. (2015). Uptake of OER by Staff in Distance Education in South Africa. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(2), Retrieved from  http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2047/3272

deNoyelles, A., Raible, J., & Seilhamer, R. (2015). Exploring Students’ E-Textbook Practices in Higher Education. EDUCAUSE Review. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2015/7/exploring-students-etextbook-practices-in-higher-education

Ehlers, U. D., & Conole, G. C. (2010). Open Educational Practices: Unleashing the power of OER. Retrieved from https://oerknowledgecloud.org/sites/oerknowledgecloud.org/files/OEP_Unleashing-the-power-of-OER.pdf

European Commission (2018). ‘Plan S’ and ‘cOAlition S’ – Accelerating the transition to full and immediate open access to scientific publications. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/commission/commissioners/2014-2019/moedas/announcements/plan-s-and-coalition-s-accelerating-transition-full-and-immediate-open-access-scientific_en

Farrelly, T., Raferty, D., & Harding, N. (2018). Exploring Lecturer Engagement with the VLE: Findings from a Multi-college Staff Survey. Irish Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(2). Retrieved from http://journal.ilta.ie/index.php/telji/article/view/41

Gibson, J.J. (1977). The Theory of Affordances. In R. Shaw and J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, acting, and knowing (pp. 67-82), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated.

Gu, X., Wu, B., & Xu, X. (2015). Design, Development and Learning in E-Textbooks: What We Learned and Where We Are Going. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(1), 25-41. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40692-014-0023-9

Inamorato dos Santos. (2016). Opening up education: The OpenEdu framework. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/sites/jrcsh/files/20170328_openeduframework_centred_video_support.pdf

Inamorato dos Santos, A., Nascimbeni, F., Bacsich, P., Atenas, J., Aceto, S., Burgos, D., & Punie, Y. (2017). Policy approaches to open education: Case studies from 28 EU member states. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/policy-approaches-open-education-case-studies-28-eu-member-states-openedu-policies

Jansen, D. (2018). Forward, The 2018 OpenupEd trends report on MOOCs. Retrieved from http://www.openuped.eu/images/Publications/The_2018_OpenupEd_trend_report_on_MOOCs.pdf

Kasich, J., & Carey, J. (2015). Ohio eTextbook pilot project, final report. Retrieved from https://www.ohiohighered.org/sites/ohiohighered.org/files/uploads/etextbooks/eTextbook-Pilot-Project-FINAL-REPORT_Dec2015.pdf

Kernohan, D., & Rolfe, V. (2017). Opening textbooks. Blog post, 8th December 2017. Retrieved from https://wonkhe.com/blogs/textbooks-a-tipping-point/

Knox, J. (2013). The Limitations of Access Alone: Moving Towards Open Processes in Education Technology. Open Praxis, 5(1), 21-29. Retrieved from https://openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/36/13

Lane, A., & McAndrew, P. (2010). Are Open Educational Resources Systematic or Systemic Change Agents for Teaching Practice? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41, 952–962. Retrieved from https://oro.open.ac.uk/23808/1/BJET-lane-mcandrew-published.pdf

Marques, M. (2017). The UK OpenTextbook project. JISC publication. Retrieved from https://etextbook.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2017/12/11/the-%EF%BB%BFuk-open-textbooks-project/

McAndrew, P. (2006). Motivations for OpenLearn: The Open University’s Open Content Initiative. Commissioned report for OECD. Retrieved from http://kn.open.ac.uk/public/document.cfm?docid=8816

McAndrew, P., Inamorato dos Santos, A.I., Lane, A., Godwin, S., Okada, A. Wilson, T., Connolly, T., Ferreira, G., Buckingham Shum, S., Bretts, J., & Webb, R. (2009). OpenLearn: Research Report (2006-2008). Retrieved from http://oro.open.ac.uk/17513/

McCowen, T. (2017). Higher Education, Unbundling and the End of the University as We Know It. Oxford Review of Education, 43(6). Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03054985.2017.1343712?journalCode=core20

Matthias, L. (2018). The worst of both worlds: Hybrid Open Access. Retrieved from https://blogs.openaire.eu/?p=3431

Murray, M. C., & Perez, J. (2011). E-Textbooks are Coming: Are we Ready? Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 8, 49–60.

Ochoa, X., Silveira, I.F., & Sprock, A.S. (2011). Collaborative Open Textbooks for Latin America. The LATin project. International Conference on Information Society. Retrieved from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5978479/

Olcott, D. (2013). Access Under Siege: Are the Gains of Open Education Keeping Pace With the Growing Barriers to University Access? Open Praxis, 5(1), 15-20. Retrieved from https://openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/14/3

Open Education Consortium (n.d.). What is open education? Retrieved from http://www.oeconsortium.org/about-oec/

OpenEdOz (2016). Students, universities and Open Education, final report. Retrieved from http://openedoz.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/ID14-3972_CSU_Wills_Final-Report_2016.pdf

Puentedura, R.R. (2013). SAMR and TPCK: An introduction. Retrieved from  http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/archives/2013/03/28/SAMRandTPCK_AnIntroduction.pdf

Reich, J. (2012). Rethinking teaching and time with the flipped classroom, edtech researcher education week. Retrieved from https://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/edtechresearcher/2012/06/rethinking_teaching_and_time_with_the_flipped_classroom.html

Spaces for Knowledge Generation (2011). Spaces for knowledge generation – Final report. Retrieved from http://documents.skgproject.com/skg-final-report.pdf

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3-10. Retrieved from http://202.116.45.236/mediawiki/resources/2/2005_siemens_Connectivism_A_LearningTheoryForTheDigitalAge.pdf

Times Higher Education (2018). Subject-level teaching excellent framework plans flawed. Posted on 23rd May 2018, retrieved from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/subject-level-teaching-excellence-framework-plans-flawed

UNESCO (n.d.). Right to education. Retrieved from https://en.unesco.org/themes/right-to-education

UNESCO (2011). WSIS Knowledge Commons. Retrieved from http://www.wsis-community.org/pg/groups/14358/open-educational-resources-oer/  

Weller, M. (2011). The digital scholar: How technology is transforming scholarly practice. Bloomsbury Academic. Retrieved from http://oro.open.ac.uk/29664/

Weller, M., Jordan, K., DeVries, I., & Rolfe, V. (2018). Mapping the Open Education Landscape: Citation Network Analysis of Historical Open and Distance Education Research. Open Praxis, 10(2). Retrieved from https://openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/822/435

Wiley, D. (2007). Open Education License Draft. Retrieved from https://opencontent.org/blog/archives/355

Wiley, D. (2014). The Access Compromise and the 5th R. Retrieved from https://opencontent.org/blog/archives/3221

Witthaus, G., Inamorato dos Santos, Childs, M., Tannhauser, A-C., Conole, G., Nkuyubwatsi, & Punie, Y. (2016). Validation of Non-formal MOOC-based Learning: An Analysis of Assessment and Recognition Practices in Europe (OpenCred). A JRC Science for Policy Report. Retrieved from http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC96968/lfna27660enn.pdf

Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013).  MOOCs and open education: Implications for Higher Education: A white paper. Retrieved from https://publications.cetis.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/MOOCs-and-Open-Education.pdf


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International License.