From Learning to Empowerment: A study of smallholder farmers in South West Uganda
The relationship between education and empowerment has been widely debated in development literature. In recent times, social capital and community-centric learning have been increasingly recognized as important variables in the empowerment process. This paper outlines the development of a Three-dimensional Framework for Empowerment, and looks at the relationship between a community-centric learning process and empowerment in selected villages in Uganda. Based on a comparative study of two villages, the paper evaluates the role of the Lifelong Learning for Farmers (L3F) programme, developed and supported by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), in empowering farming communities. The study shows that the integration of human capital (viewed purely from learning, knowledge acquisition, reflective practices, skills and competencies) social capital and financial capital, has a positive impact on development outcomes such as empowerment.
Ambunda, L., & De Klerk, S. (2008). Women and custom in Namibia: A research overview. In Women and Custom in Namibia: Cultural Practice versus Gender Equality? Windhoek: Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.kas.de/upload/auslandshomepages/namibia/Women_Custom/ambunda.pdf
Beales, S. (2012). Empowerment and older people: Enhancing capabilities in an ageing world. In Expert Group Meeting on “Promoting people’s empowerment in achieving poverty eradication, social integration and productive and decent work for all”. New York, NY: UN. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/egms/docs/2012/SylviaBeales.pdf
Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(1). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076/2113
Brown, S., Flick, L. & Williamson, K. (2004). Social capital in engineering education. 35th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. Indianapolis, IN: ASEE/IEEE. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1612269&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1612269
Burgess, R.E. (2014). A correlational analysis of empowerment and experience with resistance to change (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1175&context=dissertations
Canning, N. & Callan, S. (2010). Heutagogy: Spirals of reflection to empower learners in higher education. Reflective Practice, 11(1), 71–82.
Charmes, J. and Wieringa, S. (2003) Measuring women’s empowerment: An assessment of the Gender-related Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure. Journal of Human Development, 4:3, 419-35.
Daily, S. B., Eugene, W. & Prewitt, A.D. (2007). The development of social capital in engineering education to improve student retention. ASEE Southeast Section Conference. Retrieved from http://affect.media.mit.edu/pdfs/07.daily-aseese.pdf
D’Souza, M.S., Karkada, S.N., Somayaji, G. & Venkatesaperumal, R. (2013). Women’s well-being and reproductive health in Indian mining community: Need for empowerment. Reproductive Health, 10:24. Retrieved from http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/10/1/24
Friedmann, J. (1992) Empowerment: The politics of alternative development. Cambridge, MA & Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Heaney, T. (1995). Issues in Freirian pedagogy. Retrieved from http://www.paulofreire.ufpb.br/paulofreire/Files/outros/Issues_in_Freirean_Pedagogy.pdf
International Fund for Agricultural Development. (2014). Household methodologies- Harnessing the family’s potential for change: Gender, targeting and social inclusion. Retrieved from http://www.ifad.org/knotes/household/hh_teaser.pdf
International Food Policy Research Institute. (2012).Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index. Retrieved from http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/weai_brochure.pdf
International Food Policy Research Institute. (2014). Measuring progress towards empowerment- Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index: Baseline report. Retrieved from http://feedthefuture.gov/sites/default/files/resource/files/ftf_progress_weai_baselinereport_may2014.pdf
Jayaweera, S. (1999). Gender, education and development: Sri Lanka. In C. Heward and S. Bunwaree (eds.), Gender, education and development: Beyond access to empowerment (pp. 173-188). London: UK: Zed Books Ltd.
Jayaweera, S. (1997). Women, education and empowerment in Asia. Gender and Education, 9:4, 411-424. DOI: 10.1080/09540259721169
Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievement: Reflections on the measurement of women's empowerment. Development and Change, 30(3), 435-464.
Malhotra, A., Schuler, S.R. & Boender, C. (2002). Measuring women’s empowerment as a variable in international development (Background paper). Workshop on Poverty and Gender: New Perspectives. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGENDER/Resources/MalhotraSchulerBoender.pdf
Martinez, D.A. (2007).The manifestation of social capital within the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books/about/The_Manifestation_of_Social_Capital_With.html?id=JPucT8vFcwoC&redir_esc=y
Mason, K. (1998). Wives’ economic decision-making power in the family: Five Asian countries. In The Changing Family in Comparative Perspective: Asia and the United States, 105-133. Karen Oppenheim Mason, ed. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center.
McLaren, P. (2005). Critical theory in education: Power, politics and liberation (Core course for students in urban schooling). Los Angeles, CA: University of California. Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:eCnCVnfgATQJ:https://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/mclaren/criticaltheory.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca
Murphy-Graham, E. (2008). Opening the black box: Women’s empowerment and innovative secondary education in Honduras. Gender and Education, 20:1, 31-50.
Newman, I., & Newman, C. (2000). A discussion of low r-squares: Concerns and uses. Educational Research Quarterly, 24:2, 3-9.
Njuki, J., Kruger, E., & Starr, L. (2013). Increasing the productivity and empowerment of women smallholder farmers: Results of a baseline assessment from six countries in Africa and Asia. CARE International. Retrieved from http://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/pathways-global-baseline-report-2013.pdf
Roling, N. (1988). Extension science: Information systems in agricultural development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International License.