Journal of Learning for Development <p>JL4D publishes applied research with a focus on innovation in learning including open and distance learning, and its contribution to development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> (Tony Mays) (Tony Mays) Fri, 19 Mar 2021 10:52:17 -0700 OJS 60 Technology-Enabled Learning: OER, MOOCs, and other TEL Designs Santosh Panda Copyright (c) 2021 Santosh Panda Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:27:45 -0700 What Prevents Teacher Educators from Accessing Professional Development OER? Storytelling and Professional Identity in Ugandan Teacher Colleges. <p>Tutors working in colleges of education in sub-Saharan Africa are responsible for teaching, and inspiring hundreds of thousands of aspiring teachers, yet they have received little attention in the literature, often being depicted as a conservative cohort of professionals, unprepared for their role, yet resistant to change.</p> <p>This study reports on how 39 tutors from 8 colleges in Uganda see their professional role and their responsibilities. The research adopted a storytelling approach. Tutors were supported in developing a (true) story about their work that they felt would give previously untold insight into their profession. The stories were analysed through a professional identity lens.</p> <p>The group emerge as agentive and caring, committed to developing as teacher educators, but with a highly individual approach to their work. The nuanced understanding of tutor professional identity provided, facilitates insights into why professional development OER aimed at this group did not have the intended impact.</p> Alison Buckler, Kris Stutchbury, George Kasule, Jane Cullen, Doris Kaije Copyright (c) 2021 Alison Buckler, Kris Stutchbury, George Kasule, Jane Cullen, Doris Kaije Thu, 18 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Supporting Teachers Moving Online, Using a MOOC, During the COVID-19 Pandemic <p><em>Following campus closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many Ministries of Education around the world requested teachers to move their teaching online. This case study reflects on how the Commonwealth of Learning responded to requests from two countries to provide support </em><em>in pedagogical and curricular change for online learning </em><em>in this process. A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) platform was used to upskill 11,568 teachers in two regions of the Commonwealth. Analytics from within the course, together with pre-, mid- and end- course surveys of participants’ perceptions indicated that while there was, and is scope for improvement, the short course largely reached its objective of providing immediate support on an introductory level and that the approach adopted was largely appropriate for the purpose.</em></p> Tony John Mays, Betty Ogange, Som Naidu, Kirk Perris Copyright (c) 2021 Tony John Mays; Betty Ogange, Som Naidu, Kirk Perris Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:29:51 -0700 Rethinking Problem-Solving Teaching Strategies in the Primary Sector for both Face-to-Face and Online Delivery <p>This paper reports on a review of a series of video tutorials that were developed for offering at a distance to primary school students of Trinidad and Tobago during the pandemic. The materials selected for the review focused on the teaching of problem-solving skills based on topics drawn from the mathematics curriculum. &nbsp;The tutorials were developed and presented by primary school teachers with support from the Ministry of Education. The main purpose of this review was to assess the instructional strategies employed in the delivery of the video tutorials. An inductive-deductive approach was employed for this purpose. The review also sought to examine the effectiveness of video broadcast to support instructional delivery. The reviewer’s overall conclusion was that greater attention should be paid to formulating strategies specifically for the task of solving a given class of problems rather than simply relying on the procedures derived from the underpinning mathematical operations. &nbsp;The reviewer made some brief recommendations about the development of a technology-use policy intended to deploy educationally-appropriate modern technology to support the learning of primary school students.</p> Olabisi Kuboni Copyright (c) 2021 Olabisi Kuboni Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:31:04 -0700 (Re)Designing Augmented Reality Applications to Facilitate Intercultural Telecollaborations <p>This paper draws on design-based research to develop a real-world classroom Augmented Reality (AR) scenario which was accompanied by tasks used to mediate intercultural telecollaboration. It investigates the role of these tasks and AR scenario in enacting affordances to enrich students’ learning experiences, to establish a connection between classroom management techniques, their local context and future teaching practices and to promote insightful reflections on such practices. The trajectories upon which these tasks were designed were practice-oriented inviting students to explore three options in dealing with classroom misbehavior and reserved students. Using their mobile devices, students could view in AR a classroom setting, a student’s disruptive behavior and three possible approaches in dealing with such behavior. Upon exploring the three options in handling classroom misbehavior, students across the two participating academic institutions in Europe could post their comments on a newly created platform, ReDesign.</p> Stella Hadjistassou Copyright (c) 2021 Stella Hadjistassou Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:33:24 -0700 Learning Software Development through Modeling using an Object Oriented Approach with Unified Modeling Language: A Case of an Online Interview System <p>This paper demonstrates the learning of software engineering through modeling using Object-Oriented Analysis and Design approach with Unified Modeling Language. An online interview management system case project to the whole class was used to develop the software requirement specification. Through modelling, the processes to be considered in software development were also elaborated, where it starts with the identification of major or basic processes of the domain of application, followed by the identification of activities to be performed under each basic process and, finally, transforming the activities highlighted in the functional requirements presentation. Modeling was practised by students through group case projects, and students were active, engaging and focusing on the learning process in such a way that more than 85.9% of students had the courage to attempt design questions during university examinations.</p> Ellen Ambakisye Kalinga Copyright (c) 2021 Ellen Ambakisye Kalinga Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:34:45 -0700 To Use or not Use Collaborative Learning Techniques in Teleconference Teaching? A Case Study from the Hellenic Open University <p>The purpose of the small-scale qualitative research study was to examine the use and perceived value of integrating collaborative learning techniques at teleconferences at the School of Humanities of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). Qualitative semi-structure interviews with tutors from the School of Humanities at the HOU were conducted in order for the research plan to be fundamentally heuristic and generate original results. Purposeful sampling was chosen for the data collection process, cross-sectional organization for the data classification and thematic analysis for the data analysis. The results of the present research study indicate the parameters need to be taken into account in order for the tutors to use collaborative learning techniques at teleconference teaching at HOU. Adequate teleconference platform, tutors’ training on distance collaborative learning and group dynamics, and a common understanding regarding distance learning and group dynamics in e-learning environments are some of the most significant findings derived from this research study. The role of students, as well as the role of the distance-learning provider, in integrating and adopting distance collaborative learning strategies is also highlighted by the results.</p> Maria Niari Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Niari Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:36:05 -0700 Faculty Members’ Communication Needs with Regards to Technology <p>Educators are interested in the impact of technology on education and are supported by regulatory bodies promoting technology standards, recruiters seeking teachers with technology skills, legislated technology in the curriculum, and a demand for a technology skilled workforce. In response to the interest in technology in education, and faculty members incorporating technology in their work, this study was launched to investigate the communication needs of faculty members. This qualitative study selected a convenience sample of 120 faculty and administrators. Using an interview guide, interviewers met with 100 participants. Data was transcribed and entered into a database for analysis. Findings reported were about technology in communication. Concluding statements report that participants use technology in their communication. Faculty members look to early enablers to share best technology practices.</p> Afam Uzorka Copyright (c) 2021 Afam Uzorka Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:37:17 -0700 Interplay between Literacy and Health Services Access: The Case of Elderly Exemption Beneficiaries in Tanzania <p>Over the last two decades research has indicated an unpleasant experience for the elderly with exemptions. An important question for this paper is whether the unpleasant exempted experience for the elderly in accessing health services is linked to illiteracy. Since illiteracy can affect how services are used and its results, the answer to this paper’s question could affect how health services are accessed and their associated outcomes. Policy implementors are operating without a solid knowledge of this relationship. The study used a mixed methods approach. Purposive random sampling was applied to select&nbsp; 879 elderly and was guided by research assistants in filling in the questionnaires. Also, purposive sampling was used to recruit 23 key informants. Results indicates a significant relationship between illiteracy and selected indicators of health service access: awareness, acceptability and adequacy. This paper argues for more training opportunities through non-formal programs among adults and communication capacity building among health providers based on the results of implementing the elderly exemption policy in Ubungo and Mbarali districts in Tanzania.</p> Joshua Edward Copyright (c) 2021 Joshua Edward Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:38:28 -0700 The Effects of Authentic Learning Practices on Problem-Solving Skills and Attitude towards Science Courses <p>This study aims to investigate the effects of authentic learning methods — applied in science courses — on the problem-solving skills and attitudes towards those courses. As a research design, a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test control groups was used in the study. The data of the study were collected from 92 students at the level of 6th grade in Van, Turkey in the 2017-2018 academic year. As data collection tools, the Problem-Solving Skills Test and Science Attitude Scale were used throughout the study. During the data analysis phase, descriptive statistics, one-factor analysis of variance for unrelated samples, t-test for related samples, Kruskal Wallis-H and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used. As a result of the study, it was realised that there was a significant difference between the experimental group and control groups' problem-solving skills total scores in favour of the experimental group. Furthermore, it was ascertained that authentic learning practices improved the problem-solving skills of the experimental group students to a significant extent. In terms of attitude points towards science, it was determined that the post-test scores of the experimental group were significantly higher than the control groups and authentic learning practices had a positive effect on attitude.</p> Naciye Aynas, Mecit Aslan Copyright (c) 2021 Naciye AYNAS, Mecit ASLAN Thu, 18 Mar 2021 14:39:35 -0700 Developing Multimedia Programmes for Out-of-School Girls: The Case of GIRLS Inspire in Tanzania <p>Learning resources such as audio, video and online content are developed as supplementary learning resources to print-based materials. This study focuses on the development of multimedia learning in adult education programmes for out-of-school girls and young women in Tanzania. It defines multimedia and adult education before showing the relationship between them. The study used a descriptive paradigm and adopted a qualitative case study design. It is informed by 25 in-depth interviews that were conducted with Institute of Adult Education (IAE) facilitators in April, 2018. Participants were purposely selected based on their multimedia experience. The findings revealed that most facilitators have little experience in multimedia resource development. However, 13 self-instructional audio and audio-visual programmes were produced to elaborate and enhance the effectiveness of instructions. It will be argued that IAE should include development and use of multimedia resources in its strategic rolling plan. Learning material development policy should also include multimedia resources and create awareness.</p> Samwel Gasuku Copyright (c) 2021 Samwel Gasuku Fri, 19 Mar 2021 08:23:21 -0700 When the Trainer is Untrained: Stakeholder Incapacitation in Implementation and Utilisation of Open Educational Resources in Kenya <p>Open Educational Resources (OER) are geared towards promoting accessibility to education and to help overcome certain constraints to education associated with traditional ways of learning. However, these OERs can only be successfully rolled out and utilised in environments already enjoying certain infrastructural empowerments, including teacher-preparedness, availability of equipment to allow use of OERs and learner exposure and knowhow. This poses a major hurdle in many public and private schools in Kenya, which are in far-flung areas without electricity, mobile-phone connectivity, Internet services and serviceable roads that allow movement to a cyber cafe where Internet services may be accessed at a fee. These difficulties are encountered by both teachers and their learners. This paper seeks to discuss the challenges faced in implementation of OERs, especially by the teachers who are expected to sensitise learners to the availability and utilisation of OERs, while they themselves are either unaware of them, poorly trained to handle them or are under-facilitated to carry out their mandate. The study was carried out in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. The county was chosen because challenges related to OER have been reported there. The county has 104 secondary schools. A sample size of 45 schools representing 20% of the respondents was considered sufficient for the study. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on the teachers’ ICT competencies, their awareness of and attitudes towards OER and the challenges they faced in the implementation of OER. The study found that utilisation of OER stands at about 3% as a result of ignorance regarding OER or a negative attitude towards them, poor ICT skills amongst the teachers and poor or inadequate resources within and around the schools.</p> Ann Hildah Gatakaa Kinyua Copyright (c) 2021 Ann Hildah Gatakaa Kinyua Fri, 19 Mar 2021 08:25:32 -0700 Developing Skills to Unlock Kenya’s industrial Growth: The Influence of Provision of Modern Teaching and Learning Equipment in TVET in Kenya <p>This study explores the influence of modern teaching and learning equipment on improving vocational education quality and employment rates and its long-term effect on Kenya’s journey to achieve industrialisation by the year 2030. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. Stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students. Data was collected using questionnaires and analysed through the theoretical lenses of globalisation and vocationalism. The results show that the provision of modern equipment has improved Kenyan TVET classrooms to meet industrial standards and allowed the development of essential skills. Also, there has been improved collaboration between TVET institutions and local industries, exposing TVET students to the real labour market while still in college. The TVET students had also improved confidence in themselves and they had acquired employability skills. The findings of this study further revealed that the government of Kenya has increased its efforts in revitalizing the TVET institutions with modern teaching and learning equipment to improve the quality of training in those institutions.</p> Caroline Musyimi Copyright (c) 2021 Caroline Musyimi Fri, 19 Mar 2021 08:26:54 -0700 Effects of Free Day Secondary Education Policy on Academic Performance of Rural Public Day Secondary Schools in Kilifi County, Kenya <p>The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of Free Day Secondary Education (FDSE) policy on academic Performance of Rural Public Day Secondary Schools (RPDSS) in Kilifi County, Kenya. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and a sample of 375 subjects was considered sufficient. Structured questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data from principals, teachers, and education directors. Data on performance and enrolment were collected through document analysis. Reliability of the instruments was ascertained through test and retest method that yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.83, an indication of reliable instruments. The study found out that there was a decrease in school mean score between 2003-2007 and 2013-2017. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.93) between enrollment and poor performance. Further, learning resources and student finances were inadequate. The study recommends a reduction in class size, timely disbursement and increased students’ capitation.</p> Jorry Olang'o, Joseph Malechwanzi, Susan Murage, Lorna Amuka Copyright (c) 2021 Joseph Malechwanzi, Jorry Olang'o, Susan Murage, Lorna Amuka Fri, 19 Mar 2021 10:31:08 -0700 Rethinking A Framework for Contextualising and Collaborating in MOOCs by Higher Education Institutions in Africa <p>Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are online courses that are open to anyone with Internet access. Pioneered in North America, they were developed for contexts with broader access to technology and wider access to the Internet. As globally networked learning environments (GNLEs), MOOCs foster collaborative communities and learning in ways not conceived as feasible until recently. The affordances of MOOCs, such as the ability to access learning beyond one’s immediacy, exemplify their benefits for open and distance learning, especially in developing countries that continue to consume rather than produce online courses. However, the globality of MOOCs and their delivery mode pose a challenge of contextualising learning content to the local needs of educational institutions or individual students that choose to use the courses. This theoretical paper used a desk-research approach by revising literature to investigate and propose ways of contextualising MOOCs to the African higher education setting. It applied the principles of reuse and repurposing learning content, while suggesting the use of mobile learning as a technological delivery solution that is relevant to the local context. The paper also suggests a framework for inter-institutional collaboration for higher education institutions to guide future efforts in the creation and sharing of credit-bearing MOOCs.</p> Haipinge Erkkie, Ngepathimo Kadhila Copyright (c) 2021 Haipinge Erkkie, Ngepathimo Kadhila Fri, 19 Mar 2021 10:28:57 -0700