Mothers as Teachers: The New Role of Mothers in the New Normal

Ariel San Jose, Maria Gregoria R. Concepcion and Buena San Jose

2022 VOL. 9, No. 2

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic brought havoc to everyone but much more to child-rearing mothers. This qualitative study explored the new roles of mothers in the new normal specifically as being teachers to their children. Six mothers, who had public and private elementary grade children were purposely chosen. Information was gathered through a researcher-made validated interview questionnaire. Collection of information was done online through Facebook messenger and emails. Data analysis produced six themes, namely, complication in becoming mother-teachers, benefits in teaching one’s own children, supervision of children’s studies, impression of children of the modular schooling, considerations on children’s learning and reflection on mothers’ learning. Each theme was discussed thoroughly. To address the situation of these mothers, the Department of Education might consider  giving support through home-visit tutorials. Teachers could introduce strategies to mothers on how to manage the studies with their children. Moreover, the Local Government Unit (LGU) may initiate alternative solutions led by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to unburden the mothers of their situations.

Keywords: mothers, teachers, roles, new normal.


Many families have faced unexpected obstacles as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and these long-term demands are likely to contribute to increasing stress among parents (Adams et al., 2021). During the COVID-19 pandemic, schools around the world shuttered their doors to prevent the virus from spreading. Due to the physical closure, a rapid shift to distant learning occurred, putting more responsibility for learning on the shoulders of parents (Aldossari & Chaudry, 2020) especially on mothers who assumed much of the responsibilities at home (Clark et al., 2021). According to Misirli and Ergulec (2021), parents who undertake home tutoring face a variety of issues, including a lack of knowledge of the materials, difficulties maintaining the child's motivation, a lack of patience and internet connectivity. It was also reported by Kalsoom (2022) that mothers teaching their children in Pakistan suffered a deterioration of their well-being and had their mental health affected, while Said et al. (2021) said that in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) mothers felt the pressures of time management and a negative effect on their jobs. However, O’Reilley (2020) pointed out that despite the enormous burden on mothers, governments, the media, and society have all rejected, ignored, and ridiculed mothering.

In the Philippine context, after nearly eight months of school closures, the Department of Education (DepEd) indicated that classes would resume in October 2020. However, the Department of Education mandated that blended-learning and modular methodologies be used instead of face-to-face instruction. Cahapay (2021) reported that the Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan (BELCP) of the Department of Education uses print-modular learning, television-radio, and synchronous and asynchronous teaching methods. According to Hernando-Malipot (2020), the majority of pupils favoured print-modular learning over online learning out of all the DepEd's alternative modalities. As a result of this change, students stayed at home with their mothers who acted as their mentors.

Gonzales (2020) pointed out that the DepEd recommended parents should not act as teachers to their children but rather act as motivators and checkers to see if their children had completed their modules. Teachers, on the other hand, became module collators and assessors. Moms became teachers and, worst of all, answer-givers, because certain module questions were difficult to understand and key solutions offered were wrong. These scenarios brought further stress to a role that is already hard for mothers. According to Susilowati and Azzasyofia (2020), the added stress experienced by moms as teachers was due to their inability to supervise their children's education. The absence of learning tools, such as an internet connection and the digital literacy abilities of mothers, is cited by Putra et al. (2020) as a source of difficulty in home-based schooling. The researchers hypothesised that parental characteristics such as socio-economic status and educational attainment can contribute to teaching efficacy.

Philippine mothers are now known for combining traditional and modern parenting techniques. This means that their commitment and perseverance are not confined to domestic responsibilities. They also strive for wellbeing in all parts of their lives, especially for their children (Terol, 2016). Rojas (2017) went on to say that Philippine women are good nurturers of their children. According to Hierarchy Structure (2018), moms are the first teachers for children in a Philippine home. Given these traits of Philippine women, it would be fascinating to see how they adapted to their new responsibilities of teaching their children as a result of COVID 19.

Research Questions

This qualitative study explored the new roles of mothers during the new normal. It also looked into their first-hand experiences of being mothers and teachers to their children. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:

  1. What were the reactions of mothers in their new role as teachers to their children?
  2. How  did mothers manage their dual roles?
  3. How did the participants' children find home schooling?
  4. What insights did the mothers obtain from their experiences?

Theoretical Lens

This study was anchored on two propositions. First, the concept of the dual roles of the mother as a teacher, and second, family stress. According to Claesson and Brice (1989), the dual roles of mother and teacher are complementary. Expectations for both roles, however, were vague and, in some cases, overly high. Nonetheless, as teachers, mothers gained understanding and learned coping and benefiting skills for their dual function. In the context of the COVID 19 pandemic, de Jong et al. (2021) noted that evidently the homeschooling of children had put extra demands on mothers who, according toDarmody et al. (2020) and Moore et al. (2020), assumed more responsibilities in the household. On the other hand, family stress involves stressors that affect the family such as physical and mental health concerns, economic, intensified child-parent relationships, and home schooling (Wu & Xu, 2020). Family stressors can also be characterised into three layers of family meanings: (1) situational meanings, (2) family identity, and (3) family worldview (Patterson & Garwick, 1994). The occurrence of COVID-19 can be considered a situation meaning.  Cassinat et al. (2021) found that the pandemic increased strain and commotion within the many families, and these changes had ramifications for numerous family connections, consistent with a family stress perspective. These two concepts were appropriate in the current study because they looked into the new roles of mothers with school-aged children and at the same time determined the stresses the COVID-19 pandemic had brought to the mother and child relationship.


Research Design

The qualitative-interpretive phenomenology was applied in this investigation. If the research attempts to examine the individual's personal lived experiences, opinions, and viewpoints, the qualitative technique is frequently used, according to Torres et al. (2020). In addition, according to QSR (2010), qualitative methods are concerned with an individual's learned information, acquired behaviors, formulated motivations, and desire as a result of the experience. The qualitative method was used because the researchers wanted to learn about the first-hand experiences of mothers who acted as mentors to their children during the COVID-19 outbreak. Interpretive phenomenology, on the other hand, makes it easier to explain and comprehend the individual's experiences with the phenomenon (Benner, 1994; Friesen et al., 2012; Koch, 1996; Rae, 2000; van Manen, 1997).

Research Instrument  

The researchers created interview-guide questions based on the research questions to acquire the necessary information. There were four main and ten follow-up questions. All the questions were open-ended to give the participants the opportunity to elaborate on their experiences. According to Weller et al. (2018), open-ended inquiries allow participants to respond spontaneously, and elucidate salient information while Wright and Powell (2006) said that it elicits narratives. The mothers' reactions to their new job as mentors to their children, how they managed their new situations, how their children found the new set-up of learning modality, and the key learning they obtained were all explored in this study.  

Before giving the interview guidelines to all the mothers, two mothers were given the interview guide questions to test its face validity. Face validity is the degree to which an instrument appears to measure what it is designed to measure, according to Alhooti and Urubio (2019) and Janssen et al. (2017). For internal validity, the instrument was also given to three qualitative-expert validators. Validators' comments and suggestions were integrated into the instrument.  The researchers conducted these steps to strengthen the authenticity and credibility of the instrument.

Research Participants

All six mothers in this study had first-grade students enrolled in either public or private schools. Moreover, all mothers were housekeepers and had no teaching experience. "Lyn" was the first participant and she was 31 years old. She has completed high school. Her husband was a call center agent. "Cheng," the second participant, was 29 years old and the mother of two children. She had also completed high school. Her husband was employed as an auto-mechanic. "Zel," a 47-year-old mother of two, was the third participant. She previously worked in Japan. She had earned her bachelor's degree. "Vanilla," a 47-year-old mother of two, was the fourth participant. She was a college graduate. Her husband worked in the academe. "Christ," the fifth participant, was 37 years old and the mother of two children. She was a high school graduate. Participant 6 was "Vangie." She had three children. She was a college graduate.  Lyn’s, Cheng’s, Vanilla’s and Christ’s children were studying in public schools while Zel’s and Vangie’s children were studying in private religious schools.

Mothers whose children were beyond the first grade were not included in this study. Furthermore, only moms who consented to participate in the study were considered participants. Lastly, this study did not assess mothers' satisfaction on the modular approach's implementation of the DepEd.

Scope and Limitations

Snowball sampling was used to choose the participants for this investigation. They were chosen because: (1) they were housekeepers, (2) they had first-grade children, (3) they were not teachers or had prior teaching experience, and (4) they were residents of Talomo District, Davao City. Due to the limited number of participants, the findings of this study cannot be applied to all mothers with first-grade children attending public and private schools during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results may only apply to the mothers who took part in the study. However, the researchers suggested that another quantitative investigation with a larger sample size could be undertaken to confirm or challenge the findings of this study.

Ethical Consideration

Every study requires authors to report on the ethical implications of their research. This is to see if the study was carried out in a compassionate manner (Connelly 2014).

Similarly, human participants must be protected by the application of appropriate ethical principles (Arifin, 2018); research participants must be protected at all times during the study (Pietilä et al., 2020). In this study, the researchers observed consent and principles of justice during the conduct of the study, as well as strictly observing informed consent, non-deception, confidentiality, and principles of social justice.

Informed Consent. Before starting the study, the researchers used Philippine Indigenous Methods (FIM) such as pakikipagkwentuhan (chatting) and patanong-tanong (asking questions), pagmamasid (observing) and pakikipagpalagayang-loob (building rapport). After implementing these, the researchers learned about the conditions of the mothers. They were caught unprepared and challenged by the new set-up. Then, the researchers wrote letters of consent to selected mothers. Consent letters were given through emails as attachments or messengers. The consent was deemed necessary since it demonstrated respect for the participants' autonomy.

Non-deception. This was addressed by including the research objectives and names and contact information of researchers in the interview guide protocols. This was done so that participants could contact the researchers at any time if they had any questions or concerns.

Confidentiality. This is critical in the stewardship of participants' personal information, according to Duncan et al. (2011). Furthermore, Kaiser (2012) and Holt (2021) stated that confidentiality involves ensuring that no one other than the researchers have access to the participants' information in order to avoid antagonism. In this study, the participants were given pseudonyms by the researchers in order to maintain their anonymity.

Social Justice. Tang and Bao (2020) opined that understanding the situations of the participants at the time enhances social justice for them. Likewise, Russell (2019) averred that giving value and priority to a certain issue is also a way of promoting justice. The researchers decided to publish this study to an internationally refereed journal so that the issue of mothers as teachers could be disseminated and gather an audience. Also, this study was presented at a few conferences where it obtained much affirmation.

Results and Discussion

The findings were arranged in a three-column table (see Table 1). Each column contains the themes, core ideas, and frequency of response, respectively. The frequency of responses were categorised into three groups: general, typical, and variant. The response pattern of the information was judged as general if it reached 50% or more; typical if it reached 21 to 49%; and variant if it reached less than 20%.

Table 1: Themes and core ideas on mothers as teachers


Core Ideas

Frequency of Response

Complication in becoming a teacher to the child

Having difficulty in adjusting


Benefits in teaching own child

Making more time


Focusing on their studies

Supervision of children’s studies

Managing time by scheduling


Controlling emotions

Delaying gratification


Stopping the teaching when the child is tired

Applying strategies learned from school

Impressions of children in the modular schooling

Getting bored and missing their classmates


Having difficulty answering the module’s questions

Consideration on the learning of the child

Having time to focus on their studies


Realizing the importance of time and education


Reflection on mothers’ experiences

Teaching is not easy especially your own child


Exercising more patience in teaching the child


Supporting your children in their education


Source: Data analysis of the information obtained

Complication in Becoming a Teacher to the Child

All mothers admitted that the new set-up created much difficulty on their part. They needed to adjust in terms of time, the attitude of their children, and answering the module’s questions.

The reactions of mothers revealed that they were concerned about their children's education. They lacked confidence in themselves and couldn't rely on their own ability to instruct. They were also concerned about their children's behavior because, in their experience, their children tended to follow their teachers' instructions. Vangie was the only one of the five mothers who hired a tutor. She did it to relieve herself of her children's academic obligations. This means that a family's economic circumstances could make it easier for mothers to teach their children.

As a result of COVID-19, women confronted a range of challenges, according to Crosslin and Bailey (2021), including higher effort, blurring boundaries between a mother and a teacher, and the house becoming a school place. Furthermore, the findings were comparable to those of Parczewska (2020), who discovered that a number of Polish moms described the COVID-19 situation as difficult, and that the responsibilities associated with home schooling were beyond their abilities. Mothers are frequently doubtful of their own abilities and solutions, and they were concerned about the futures of their children.

To eliminate mothers' misgivings and reduce their uncertainty, the researchers feel that extensive cooperation and collaboration between parents and instructors is required. Teachers need to make regular house visits so that students can develop a personal connection with their teachers as an example of coordination and collaboration. Home visits during the epidemic, according to Mañosca (2021), foster communication not only between parents and teachers, but also between teachers and pupils. According to Flack et al. (2020), teachers should also be concerned about their pupils' emotional well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, that is teachers need to focus more on Maslow’s hierarchy over Bloom’s taxonomy.

Benefits in Teaching One’s Own Child

Despite their difficulties, the moms typically recognised the advantages of teaching their children. They were able to devote more time to their children's schooling and bonding. Mothers and their children were found to spend more time at home with each other. This situation suggests that, despite the increased strain, moms were able to find the bright side of the situation. Despite the benefits of this situation, Kokhanova et al. (2021) discovered that many parents were dissatisfied with distance learning due to the lack of total contact and engagement with students and teachers. Furthermore, Abuhammad (2020) reported that most parents were opposed to remote learning because of personal, technical, logistical, and financial obstacles.

Supervision of Children’s Studies

Mothers usually agreed that they needed to manage their time when it came to their children's schooling. They set aside time to respond to the modules as well as time to play. However, due to tiredness, there were moments when the specified schedule was not adhered to. Furthermore, the moms acknowledged that they had to control their emotions and exhibit patience when teaching their children. Mothers were more anxious when the questions in the modules were challenging and they needed to conduct research to find answers. Mothers with higher educational attainment had an easier time understanding than those moms who did not.

Typically, some mothers used a delayed gratification strategy with their children, preparing favourite snacks or presenting gifts after the modules were completed. When other mothers notice that their children were already sleepy, they set a time limit and gave them a break. Similarly, some mothers used tactics that they had learnt in their schooling. According to Bembenutty (2021), some moms employed delayed gratification to keep their children motivated, maintained a high level of self-efficacy, and kept their cognitive and affective systems in a healthy balance. Duran and Grissmer (2020) pointed out that immediate gratification, rather than delayed gratification, might teach youngsters self-control. Furthermore, Octaberlina and Muslimi (2020) stated that providing pupils with breaks was essential for pupils to recover their energy and relax their minds.

Impressions of Children in the Modular Schooling

The mothers generally stated that their children missed the face-to-face method, yearned for their classmates, and were bored. Because of the Inter-Agency Task Force's (IATF) age-restriction policy, their children rarely left the house; as a result, they spent much of their time at home with their mobile phones. Furthermore, the majority of the modules presented to the youngsters were difficult to work through. Images were confusing, directions were imprecise, and critical responses were inaccurate. Furthermore, tasks that needed performance outputs, such as making reflections, giving personal definitions of terms, sketching humans and animals, and others, were not age-appropriate. The majority of the mothers were irritated by this. The errors discovered by the mothers in the modules corresponded to reports in online newspapers by Rappler's Magsambol (2020) and CNN Philippines (Nicholls, 2020) that the DepEd’s Self-Learning Modules (SLMs) contained factual, typographical, and computation equation errors, as well as spelling and grammatical errors. It was observed that mothers with a college education noticed module errors more than those who had not.

Consideration on the Learning of the Child

With the new normal, most mothers stated that they and their children had more time to concentrate on their education. They were, however, dubious about their ability to teach. Other moms, on the other hand, believed that, despite their difficulties, their children's education remained their first priority, and that they were willing to sacrifice. De Jong et al. (2021) expected that mothers' self-efficacy in teaching would have a substantial impact on how they dealt with the added responsibilities of homeschooling. Similarly, they predicted that parental characteristics such as social-economic status and stress would have an impact on their teaching self-efficacy. It was interesting to note that mothers with higher educational attainment were more patient to their children. On the contrary, mothers with lower educational attainment were stricter and impatient. They imposed stern study schedules for their children.

Reflection on Mothers’ Experiences

Most mothers revealed that teaching their own children was not easy because, admittedly, they were not equipped with the knowledge and strategies. They were forced to accept the responsibility of teaching their children because they had no choice. Moreover, some mothers realised that they needed to have more patience and understanding for their children. Other mothers mentioned that they were ready to sacrifice to support their children’s education.

This study is consistent with DPS Kolar and Road Bhopa's mother-teacher concept, which states that mothers comprehend and adjust for their children. They were always concerned about the well-being of their children and were willing to make sacrifices to ensure their success. This finding also suggested that COVID-19 had a significant impact on mothers' psychological well-being, emotions, and family relations (Clark et al., 2021). In the same vein, Kalsoom (2021) stated that, due to the epidemic, moms confront challenges such as balancing job and family life, finding space and resources to teach their children, and learning new skills to teach their children. Mothers had little choice but to accept their circumstances and, worse, suffer from mental confusion as a result of their multiple responsibilities.


Admittedly, all mothers lack knowledge of the new set-up which brings many difficulties on their part. They have no choice but to adapt to the new situation. Their concern for their children's education implies they value education despite the fact that not all of them finished their education. This attitude of the mothers reflects the Filipino value of education. On the other hand, the mothers lacked confidence in mentoring their children and concern for their children's behavior implies that, in terms of education, they trusted the teachers.

To take the dual roles of mothers, the mothers set timetables for module learning and play. Likewise, they needed to control their emotions and prolong their patience. Some mothers also employed delayed gratification. This implies that mothers can develop a quick approach based on their children's attitudes.

Home schooling makes the children bored and they want to have face-to-face schooling. Due to the restrictions, most children cannot go outside but instead stay at home with their electronic gadgets. Boredom is a natural reaction among children; however, yearning to have the old face-to-face classroom implies that the children are not used to the new set-up, which is modular and online. Although most mothers were doubtful of their ability to teach their children, however, they are thankful that they can give time to the education of their children. The pandemic allows them to bond. They realised that despite the challenges they encountered in dealing with the education of their children, it remains their priority and they are willing to sacrifice for the children. 


To address the situation of these mothers, the DepEd may consider  giving support through home-visit tutorials. Teachers may introduce strategies to mothers on how to manage studies with their children. Moreover, the LGU may initiate alternative solutions led by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to unburden the mothers of their situations.


Abuhammad, S. (2020). Barriers to distance learning during the COVID-19 outbreak: A qualitative review from parents’ perspective. Heliyon, e05482.

Alhooti, S. E., & Urubio, M. L. (2019). An effective project selection criteria: A key to successful project delivery for small to medium enterprises in kingdom of Bahrain. IJO-International Journal of Business Management2(09), 54-67.

Arifin, S. R. M. (2018). Ethical considerations in qualitative study. International Journal of Care Scholars, 1(2), 30-33.

Bembenutty, H. (2021). Sustaining motivation and academic delay of gratification: Analysis and applications. Theory into Practice, (in press).

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Addison-Wesley.

Cahapay, M. B. (2021). Philippine Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan: Creating space for indigenous peoples toward inclusive post-COVID-19 education. International Journal of Pedagogical Development and Lifelong Learning2(1).


Claesson, M. A., & Brice, R. A. (1989). Teacher/mothers: Effects of a dual role. American Educational Research Journal, 26(1), 1-23.

Clark, S., McGrane, A., Boyle, N., Joksimovic, N., Burke, L., Rock, N., & O’Sullivan, K. (2021). “You’re a teacher you’re a mother, you’re a worker”: Gender inequality during COVID‐19 in Ireland. Gender, Work & Organization, 28(4), 1352-1362.

Connelly, L. M. (2014). Ethical considerations in research studies. Medsurg Nursing, 23(1), 54-56.

Crosslin, L., & Bailey, L. E. (2021). Mother school leaders negotiated blurred lines between work and home during COVID 19. Planning & Changing50.

Darmody, M., Smyth, E., & Russell, H. (2020). The implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for policy in relation to children and young people: A research review. Survey and Statistical Report Series, 94.

de Jong, P. F., Schreurs, B. G., & Zee, M. (2021). Parent–child conflict during homeschooling in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: A key role for mothers’ self-efficacy in teaching.

Duncan, G. T., Elliot, M., & Salazar-González, J. J. (2011). Why statistical confidentiality? In Statistical confidentiality (pp. 1-26). Springer.

Duran, C. A., & Grissmer, D. W. (2020). Choosing immediate over delayed gratification correlates with better school-related outcomes in a sample of children of color from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 56(6), 1107.

Flack, C. B., Walker, L., Bickerstaff, A., Earle, H., & Margetts, C. (2020). Educator perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 on teaching and learning in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne, Australia. Pivot Professional Learning.

Friesen, N., Henrikson, C., & Saevi, T. (Eds.). (2012). Hermeneutic phenomenology in education: Method and practice. Sense Publishers.,+N.,+Henrikson,+C.,+Saevi,+T.+(Eds.).+(2012).+Hermeneutic+phenomenology+in+education:+Method+and+practice.%C2%A0Rotherdam,+the+Netherlands:%C2%A0Sense+Publishers.&ots=tH62C9uXXK&sig=0wp5EtCTnEbKqufctLLNixombqo&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Geer, J. G. (1991). Do open-ended questions measure “salient” issues? Public Opinion Quarterly55(3), 360-370. 

Gonzales, C. (2020, October). Parents as teachers at home? DepEd says they’re needed to ‘motivate’ kids.

Hamad, F. K. (2021). Palestinian mothers’ perceptions about online learning at public and private elementary schools during COVID-19: Challenges and recommendations. Pedagogical Research, 6(3). 

Hernando-Malipot, M. (2020 July). DepEd: Most students prefer ‘modular’ learning over online. Manila Bulletin.

Hierarchy Structure (2018). Filipino family hierarchy.

Hoft, J. (2021). Anonymity and confidentiality. The Encyclopedia of Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1, 223-227. 

Janssen, E. M., Marshall, D. A., Hauber, A. B., & Bridges, J. F. (2017). Improving the quality of discrete-choice experiments in health: How can we assess validity and reliability? Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research17(6), 531-542.

Kaiser, K. (2012). Protecting confidentiality. The SAGE handbook of interview research: The complexity of the craft, 457-465.,+K.+(2012).+Protecting+confidentiality.+The+SAGE+handbook+of+interview+research:+The+complexity+of+the+craft,+457-465.&ots=aRUhPyIBz7&sig=zBWqYA_JMl9uy9jZfcDwbTgvnc8&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Kalsoom, Q. (2021). Covid-19: Experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan. Journal of Gender Studies, 1-13.

Koch, T. (1996). Implementation of a hermeneutic inquiry in nursing: Philosophy, rigour and representation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24, 174-184.

Kokhanova, O. P., Stolyarchuk, O. A., & Sorokina, O. (2021). Benefits and risks of distance learning for the first-year students' adaptation.

Magsambol, B. (2020, October 23). 30 errors found in DepEd's learning modules. Rappler.

Mañosca, E. C. O. (2021). Parental involvement in home visitation: Its relation to students personal development amidst the pandemic. EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research7(6), 342-352.

McDowell, S. A. (2000). The home schooling mother-teacher: Toward a theory of social integration. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(1-2), 187-206. 

Moore, Q., Beebe, J., & Bakhiet, Z. (2020). Hidden figures: The economic impact of Covid-19 on low-income women and their children. Issue brief no. 04.09.20. Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy.

Nicholls, A. C. (2020, October 23) 41 errors in self-learning modules monitored by DepEd. CNN Philippines.

Parczewska, T. (2020). Difficult situations and ways of coping with them in the experiences of parents homeschooling their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Education 3-13, 1-12.

Pietilä, A. M., Nurmi, S. M., Halkoaho, A., & Kyngäs, H. (2020). Qualitative research: Ethical considerations. In The application of content analysis in nursing science research (pp. 49-69). Springer, Cham.

Putra, P., Liriwati, F. Y., Tahrim, T., Syafrudin, S., & Aslan, A. (2020). The students learning from home experiences during Covid-19 school closures policy in Indonesia. Jurnal Iqra: Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan5(2), 30-42.

QSR International. (2010). What is qualitative research? what-is-qualitative-research. aspx

Rae, D. (2000). Understanding entrepreneurial learning: A question of how? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 6, 145-159.

Rojas, J. F. M. (2017, May 14). The roles of mothers. Business Mirror.

Russell, S. T. (2019). Social justice and the future of healthy families: Sociocultural changes and challenges.

Susilowati, E., & Azzasyofia, M. (2020). The parents stress level in facing children study from home in the early of COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. International Journal of Science and Society2(3), 1-12.

Tang, H., & Bao, Y. (2020). Social justice and K-12 teachers' effective use of OER: A cross-cultural comparison by nations. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1).

Terol, N. (2016 May 23). New truths about Filipino moms. Business Mirror.

Torres, R. M. V., Sangala, L. J. T., San Jose, A. E., & Mortos, A. R. (2020). Untold stories of student-mothers’ academic journey: A phenomenology. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities, 6(4), 158-169.'_Academic_Journey_A_Phenomenology/links/5fda1328299bf14088139331/Untold-Stories-of-Student-Mothers-Academic-Journey-A-Phenomenology.pdf

van Manen, M. (1997). Researching the lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy (2nd ed.). Althouse Press.,+M.+(1997).+Researching+the+lived+experience:+Human+science+for+an+action+sensitive+pedagogy+(2nd+ed.).%C2%A0Ontario,+Canada:%C2%A0Althouse+Press.&ots=qWdz9Ycro4&sig=0aVUwjWgJZdnUV_8Fr6sYN7ZE7E&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Weller, S. C., Vickers, B., Bernard, H. R., Blackburn, A. M., Borgatti, S., Gravlee, C. C., & Johnson, J. C. (2018). Open-ended interview questions and saturation. PloS one13(6), e0198606.

Wright, R., & Powell, M. B. (2006). Investigative interviewers' perceptions of their difficulty in adhering to open-ended questions with child witnesses. International Journal of Police Science & Management8(4), 316-325.


Ariel San Jose formerly worked at Gulf College, Oman and is presently a faculty member at the Institute of Human Service at the Southern Philippines Agribusiness and Marine and Aquatic School of Technology, Malita, Davao Occidental. Email:

Maria Gregoria R. Concepcion is a former lecturer at Gulf College, Oman and is currently a lecturer at the Higher College of Technology, Abu Dhabi. Email:

Buena San Jose formerly worked at the Office of the Registrar at the University of the Immaculate Conception, Davao City. Email:


Cite this paper as: San Jose, A., Concepcion, M. R. G., & San Jose, B. (2022). Mothers as teachers: The new role of mothers in the new normal. Journal of Learning for Development, 9(1), 351-362.